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A. The operator or his agent shall establish eight-hour intervals of time subject to required pre-shift examinations. Within three hours preceding the beginning of any such eight-hour interval during which any person is scheduled to work or travel underground, mine foremen shall make a pre-shift examination. No person scheduled to enter the mine during the eight-hour interval other than the mine foremen conducting the examination may enter any underground area unless a pre-shift examination has been completed for such established eight-hour interval

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Chapter 1. Overview 1.1. Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt 1.2. Extraction of Cobalt From CopperCOBALT Ores 1.3. Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals From Sulfide Ores 1.4. Recovering Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum-Group Metals From End-of-Use Scrap 1.5. Organization of Major Themes and Topics 1.6. Summary Chapter 2. Nickel Production, Price, and Extraction Costs 2.1. Applications of Nickel 2.2. Location of Nickel Mines and Extraction Plants 2.3. Price of Nickel 2.4. Costs of Nickel Extraction 2.5. Summary Chapter 3. Upgrading of Laterite Ores 3.1. Laterite Ores 3.2. Upgrading of Laterite Ores 3.3. Extent of Upgrading 3.4. Economic Justification for Upgrading Laterites 3.5. Principles and Methods of Upgrading Laterites 3.6. Evaluation 3.7. Summary Chapter 4. Overview of the Smelting of Nickel Laterite to Ferronickel 4.1. Feed to Ferronickel Smelting 4.2. Ferronickel Product 4.3. Principles of Ferronickel Smelting 4.4. Brief Process Description Chapter 5. Dewatering and Calcination of Laterite Ores 5.1. Dewatering of the Upgraded Laterite Ore 5.2. Control of the Dewatering Kiln 5.3. Calcination and Reduction of Dewatered Laterite 5.4. Chemistry 5.5. Products 5.6. Appraisal 5.7. Summary Chapter 6. Smelting of Laterite Ores to Ferronickel 6.1. reactions in the Electric Furnace 6.2. Nickel Recovery 6.3. Melting Temperatures 6.4. Industrial Smelting Furnaces 6.5. Method of Heating the Furnace 6.6. Electrodes 6.7. Furnace Operation 6.8. Control 6.9. Appraisal and Future Trends 6.10. Summary Chapter 7. Refining Molten Ferronickel 7.1. Phosphorus Removal 7.2. Sulfur Removal 7.3. Industrial Refining 7.4. Removing Other Impurities 7.5. Casting of Ferronickel 7.6. Appraisal 7.7. Summary Chapter 8. Smelting Laterite Concentrates to Sulfide Matte 8.1. Matte Production Flowsheets 8.2. Pt Inco Process 8.3. Le Nickel Process Making Matte from Molten Refined Ferronickel 8.4. Process Appraisal 8.5. Summary Chapter 9. Roasting Matte to Nickel Oxide and Metal 9.1. Matte Roasting Objectives 9.2. Chemistry 9.3. Products 9.4. Industrial Roasting 9.5. Re-Roasting 9.6. Fluidization 9.7. Advantages Of Fluidized Beds 9.8. Industrial Operation 9.9. Reduction Roasting 9.10. Nickel Recovery 9.11. Sulfur Capture 9.12. Summary Chapter 10. Overview of the Hydrometallurgical Processing of Laterite Ores 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Alternatives to Mixed Sulfide Precipitation 10.3. Downstream Processing 10.4. Summary Chapter 11. High-Temperature Sulfuric Acid Leaching of Laterite Ores 11.1. Chapter Objectives 11.2. Sulfuric Acid Leaching 11.3. Chemistry 11.4. Autoclave Operation 11.5. Process Appraisal 11.6. Summary Chapter 12. Precipitation Of NickelCobalt Sulfide 12.1. Reasons for Making a Mixed-Sulfide Precipitate 12.2. Flowsheet 12.3. Autoclave Exit Slurry Neutralization 12.4. Solution Reneutralization 12.5. Removal of Zinc and Copper From Solution by Sulfide Precipitation 12.6. Precipitation of NickelCobalt Sulfide 12.7. Product Destination 12.8. Appraisal 12.9. Summary Chapter 13. Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt from Sulfide Ores 13.1. Nickel Sulfide Ores 13.2. Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt from Sulfide Ores 13.3. Hydrometallurgical Alternatives to Matte Smelting 13.4. Voisey's Bay Process for Leaching Nickel Concentrates 13.5. Heap Leaching of Nickel Sulfide Ore 13.6. Summary Chapter 14. Production of Nickel Concentrates from Sulfide Ores 14.1. The Advantages of Grinding and Concentration 14.2. Crushing and Grinding 14.3. Comminution Steps 14.4. Control of Particle Size 14.5. Recent Developments 14.6. Summary Chapter 15. Production of Nickel Concentrate from Ground Sulfide Ore 15.1. Need for Concentration 15.2. Principles of Froth Flotation 15.3. Flotation Cells 15.4. Flotation Chemicals 15.5. Specific Flotation Procedures for Pentlandite Ores 15.6. Flotation Products 15.7. Operation and Control 15.8. Recent Developments 15.9. Summary Chapter 16. Separation of Chalcopyrite from Pentlandite by Flotation 16.1. Chapter Objectives 16.2. Separation of Chalcopyrite and Pentlandite 16.3. Industrial Practice 16.4. Grinding 16.5. Summary Chapter 17. Smelting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrates by Roasting and Electric Furnace Smelting 17.1. Principles of Roasting and Smelting 17.2. Chemistry of Roasting 17.3. Electric Furnace Smelting 17.4. Industrial Electric Furnaces 17.5. Summary Chapter 18. Flash Smelting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrates 18.1. Objective of the Process Nickel Enrichment 18.2. Advantages and Disadvantages 18.3. Extent of Oxidation 18.4. Chemistry 18.5. Industrial Flash Smelting 18.6. Outotec-Type Flash Furnace 18.7. Inco-Type Flash Furnace 18.8. Peripheral Equipment 18.9. Operation and Control of the Flash Furnace 18.10. Appraisal 18.11. Recent Trends 18.12. Summary Chapter 19. Converting Final Oxidation of Iron From Molten Matte 19.1. Starting and Finishing Compositions 19.2. Chemistry of Converting 19.3. Principles of Converting 19.4. Behavior of Other Metals 19.5. Choice of Final Iron Content 19.6. End-Point Determination 19.7. Capture of Sulfur Dioxide 19.8. Tuyeres and Oxygen Enrichment 19.9. Nitrogen-Shrouded Blast Injection 19.10. Converter Control 19.11. Alternatives to Peirce-Smith Converting 19.12. Direct to Low-Iron Matte Flash Smelting 19.13. Summary Chapter 20. Sulfur Dioxide Capture in Sulfuric Acid and Other Products 20.1. Nickel Extraction Offgases 20.2. Production of Sulfuric Acid from Roaster and Flash Furnace Offgases 20.3. Gas Cooling, Cleaning, and Drying 20.4. Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfur Trioxide 20.5. Catalyst for the Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide 20.6. Making Acid from Sulfur Trioxide 20.7. Double-Contact Acid-Making 20.8. Acid Plant Products 20.9. Environmental Performance of the Nickel Industry 20.10. Making Sulfuric Acid for the Leaching of Nickel Laterite 20.11. Summary Chapter 21. Slow Cooling and Solidification of Converter Matte 21.1. Solidification and Slow Cooling Process 21.2. Industrial Matte Casting, Solidification and Slow Cooling 21.3. Concentrate Destinations 21.4. Summary Chapter 22. Carbonyl Refining of Impure Nickel Metal 22.1. Chemistry of the Process 22.2. Industrial Ambient Pressure Carbonylation 22.3. Decomposition of Nickel Carbonyl 22.4. High-Pressure Carbonyl Refining 22.5. Appraisal 22.6. Summary Chapter 23. Hydrometallurgical Production of High-Purity Nickel and Cobalt 23.1. Refining of Sulfide Precipitates from Laterite Leaching Operations 23.2. Refining of Nickel Mattes from Smelting Operations 23.3. Appraisal 23.4. Summary Chapter 24. Leaching of Nickel Sulfide Mattes and Precipitates 24.1. Chlorine Leaching 24.2. OxygenAmmonia Leaching 24.3. Leaching by Sulfuric Acid Solutions using Oxygen 24.4. Appraisal 24.5. Summary Chapter 25. Separation of Nickel and Cobalt by Solvent Extraction 25.1. Chapter Objectives 25.2. Principles of Solvent Extraction 25.3. Chloride Solvent Extraction 25.4. Solvent Extraction in Sulfate Solutions 25.5. Solvent Extraction in Ammoniacal Solutions 25.6. Solvent Extraction in Sulfate and Chloride Solutions 25.7. Diluents 25.8. Washing and Scrubbing the Organic 25.9. Impurity Removal 25.10. Appraisal 25.11. Summary Chapter 26. Electrowinning of Nickel from Purified Nickel Solutions 26.1. Objectives of this Chapter 26.2. Electrowinning Nickel from Chloride Electrolyte 26.3. Electrowinning Nickel from Sulfate Solutions 26.4. New Developments in Nickel Electrowinning 26.5. Other Electrolytic Nickel Processes 26.6. Appraisal 26.7. Summary Chapter 27. Hydrogen Reduction of Nickel from Ammoniacal Sulfate Solutions 27.1. Process Chemistry 27.2. Industrial Applications 27.3. Industrial Production of Nickel Powder 27.4. Appraisal 27.5. Summary Chapter 28. Cobalt Occurrence, Production, Use and Price 28.1. Occurrence and Extraction 28.2. Recycling of Cobalt 28.3. Uses of Cobalt 28.4. Global Mine Production 28.5. Price 28.6. Summary Chapter 29. Extraction of Cobalt from Nickel Laterite and Sulfide Ores 29.1. Cobalt Extraction from Nickel Laterite Ore 29.2. Refining of Cobalt 29.3. Extraction of Cobalt from Nickel Sulfide Ores 29.4. Summary Chapter 30. Production of Cobalt from the CopperCobalt Ores of the Central African Copperbelt 30.1. Typical Ore Deposit 30.2. Mining 30.3. Extraction of Cobalt and Copper from Weathered Ore 30.4. Exploiting the CobaltCopper Sulfide Ore Layer 30.5. Summary Chapter 31. Platinum-Group Metals, Production, Use and Extraction Costs 31.1. Uses of the Platinum-Group Elements 31.2. Mining of Platinum-Group Elements 31.3. Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals 31.4. Prices 31.5. Costs of Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals 31.6. Summary Chapter 32. Overview of the Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals Chapter 33. Production of Flotation Concentrates Containing Platinum-Group Metals 33.1. Ores and Concentrates 33.2. Ores Containing Platinum-Group Metals 33.3. South African Ores Containing Platinum-Group Metals 33.4. Production of Flotation Concentrate from The Merensky Reef 33.5. UG2 Ores and the Problem of Chromite 33.6. Flotation Reagents and Conditions 33.7. Improving Recovery of Platinum-Group Elements to Concentrate 33.8. Gravity Separation 33.9. Recent Developments 33.10. Summary Chapter 34. Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals from Russian Ores 34.1. Nickel Copper and Platinum Ores from Norilsk-Talnakh 34.2. Russian Production 34.3. Recent Developments 34.4. Summary Chapter 35. Smelting and Converting of Sulfide Concentrates Containing Platinum-Group Metals 35.1. Major Process Steps 35.2. Concentrate Drying 35.3. Smelting the Concentrates 35.4. Converting the Furnace Matte 35.5. Recent Developments in Smelting and Converting in The Platinum Industry 35.6. Summary Chapter 36. Separation of the Platinum-Group Metals from Base Metal Sulfides, and the Refining of Nickel, Copper and Cobalt 36.1. Overview of the Refining of the Platinum-Group Metals 36.2. Objectives of This Chapter 36.3. Base Metal Refineries Where Nickel is Produced as Nickel Sulfate 36.4. Base Metal Refineries Where Nickel is Produced as Powder by Hydrogen Reduction 36.5. Base Metals Refinery Where Nickel is Produced as Nickel Cathode 36.6. Appraisal 36.7. Summary Chapter 37. Refining of the Platinum-Group Metals 37.1. Objectives of this Chapter 37.2. Concentrate Composition 37.3. Separation Techniques Used in the Refining of the Platinum-Group Metals 37.4. Refining Efficiency 37.5. Classification of Refining Processes 37.6. Lonmin's Western Platinum Refinery 37.7. Krastsvetmet's Refinery at Krasnoyarsk 37.8. Appraisal of the Precipitation Processes 37.9. The Johnson Matthey/Anglo American Platinum Process 37.10. The Acton Refinery Process 37.11. Appraisal of the Solvent-Extraction Processes 37.12. Impala Platinum's Ion-Exchange Process 37.13. Appraisal of the Ion-Exchange Processes 37.14. Summary Chapter 38. Recycling of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum-Group Metals 38.1. Recycling of Platinum-Group Metals from Automobile Catalyst 38.2. Recycling of Nickel in Stainless Steel 38.3. Recycling of Cobalt 38.4. Summary Appendix A. Ferronickel Smelting of Non-Tropical Laterite Ores Appendix B. Caron Process for Processing Nickel Laterites Appendix C. Flash Cooling of Autoclaves Appendix D. Counter-Current Decantation of Leaching Slurries Appendix E. Recovering Nickel-, Copper-, Cobalt- and Platinum-Group Elements from Slags Appendix F. Electrorefining of High-Purity Nickel from Cast Impure Ni Alloy and Ni Matte Anodes Appendix G. Top Blown Rotary Converter Appendix H. Nickel Carbonylation Free Energies and Equilibrium Constants Index

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A. The operator or his agent shall establish eight-hour intervals of time subject to required pre-shift examinations. Within three hours preceding the beginning of any such eight-hour interval during which any person is scheduled to work or travel underground, mine foremen shall make a pre-shift examination. No person scheduled to enter the mine during the eight-hour interval other than the mine foremen conducting the examination may enter any underground area unless a pre-shift examination has been completed for such established eight-hour interval

Makeup, Condensate, Feed, Cooling and Effluent Water Quality Analysis pH, ORP, conductivity, turbidity and dissolved O2; 40 CFR 411 and Canadian Liquid Effluent Regulations and Waste Water Effluent Guidelines

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All primary sulfide ores of copper sulfides, and most concentrates of secondary copper sulfides (being chalcocite), are subjected to smelting. Some vat leach or pressure leach processes exist to solubilise chalcocite concentrates and produce copper cathode from the resulting leachate solution, but this is a minor part of the market

Despite its potential, the level of recycling and material recovery of construction and demolition waste varies greatly across the EU, ranging from less than 10% to over 90%. EU counties apply different definitions of construction and demolition waste, which makes cross-country comparisons difficult

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In-situ mining is the removal of the valuable components of a mineral deposit without physical extraction of the rock (Bates and Jackson, 1987). In-situ leaching is a type of in-situ mining in which metals or minerals are leached from rocks by aqueous solutions, a hydrometallurgical process (American Geological Institute, 1997). In-situ leaching has been successfully used to extract uranium from permeable sandstones in Texas, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and in-situ leaching of copper has been successfully demonstrated in underground copper mines in Arizona, where prior mining has created sufficient permeability for leaching solutions (lixiviants) to contact ore minerals (Bartlett, 1992, 1998; Coyne and Hiskey, 1989; Schlitt and Hiskey, 1981; Schlitt and Shock, 1979). As used in this report the term in-situ mining includes variations that involve some physical extraction

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Mineral Sands. Heavy mineral sand deposits are a source of materials such as zirconium, titanium, thorium and tungsten as well as industrial minerals like diamonds, sapphire and garnet. The grade from a typical mineral sand deposit is low most ore deposits will have a total heavy mineral (THM) concentrate from the bulk sand of around 1%

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In-situ mining is the removal of the valuable components of a mineral deposit without physical extraction of the rock (Bates and Jackson, 1987). In-situ leaching is a type of in-situ mining in which metals or minerals are leached from rocks by aqueous solutions, a hydrometallurgical process (American Geological Institute, 1997). In-situ leaching has been successfully used to extract uranium from permeable sandstones in Texas, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and in-situ leaching of copper has been successfully demonstrated in underground copper mines in Arizona, where prior mining has created sufficient permeability for leaching solutions (lixiviants) to contact ore minerals (Bartlett, 1992, 1998; Coyne and Hiskey, 1989; Schlitt and Hiskey, 1981; Schlitt and Shock, 1979). As used in this report the term in-situ mining includes variations that involve some physical extraction

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