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PW is a major player in our chosen markets of contract mining and civil engineering construction, with an impressive list of high profile project completions. We set out on every project to work as a full partner with the client, avoid conflict, deliver on time, achieve the required quality, and execute our work safely

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PW is a major player in our chosen markets of contract mining and civil engineering construction, with an impressive list of high profile project completions. We set out on every project to work as a full partner with the client, avoid conflict, deliver on time, achieve the required quality, and execute our work safely

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Equation (6.2) indicates that to estimate the radius R of the roll, the nip angle is required. The nip angle on its part will depend on the coefficient of friction, , between the roll surface and the particle surface. To estimate the coefficient of friction, consider a compressive force, F, exerted by the rolls on the particle just prior to crushing, operating normal to the roll surface, at the point of contact, and the frictional force between the roll and particle acting along a tangent to the roll surface at the point of contact. The frictional force is a function of the compressive force F and is given by the expression, F. If we consider the vertical components of these forces, and neglect the force due to gravity, then it can be seen that at the point of contact (Figure6.2) for the particle to be just nipped by the rolls, the equilibrium conditions apply where

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briquettes making machines in pune, maharashtra - dealers & traders

1. Wood preparation 2. Continuous drier 3. Carbonisation retort 4. Hot gases recovery 5. By-products recovery Not much is known about by-products from the condensate produced by specific agricultural wastes when carbonised. But maize cobs have been studied extensively since they are used to produce the solvent agent, fur-fural, when heated with sulphuric acid to moderate temperatures. Generally, one would expect the condensate to have a similar composition to that produced from the carbonisation of wood since the composition of most agricultural wastes is broadly similar, the main differences being a higher ash content and a limited degree of lignification except in the case of nut shells. The list of agricultural residues which have been considered for carbonisation is long but the level of commercial success is limited to a few special cases. As mentioned the only attractive raw materials are the nut shells particularly coconut because of the high priced charcoal which they can produce. The following list gives an idea of some of the various agricultural residues which have been considered as possible charcoal making materials. - nut shells and husks- residues from farm crop processing and canning- sugar cane bagasse- bamboo, scrub and cactus- garbage wastes- straw and reeds- industrial wastes as from carpet factories and pulp mills- processing residues from coffee, cotton and fruit canning As a rule these proposals have foundered on economic grounds or a higher return from alternative uses. The main conditions for charcoal making to be economically possible from these materials are:- The material must be of low or zero value and concentrated at the proposed point of processing. There must be a market able to pay top prices for either powdered charcoal or briquettes, as a high ash product, ruling out most industrial uses. Supply must be either year round or storage must present no problems or the processing method used must be so low cost that it can operate for only a short period of the year. There must be a continuous supply of material available for years ahead to allow the plant to be amortised successfully. Photo. 5. Carbonisation furnace for agricultural residues Photo. 6. Charcoal produced from rice husk and formerly used for briquetting The three main reasons which attract attention to agricultural wastes are:- availability at apparently low cost, the material is dry, and transport costs are zero or very low since the material is concentrated at the point of crop processing.4.4 Bark waste Although not strictly an agricultural waste it is convenient to discuss here the use of bark waste from timber processing as a raw material for charcoal. logs typically carry about 10% of their volume as bark. Both softwood and hardwood bark can be made into charcoal, in both cases the charcoal is in the form of powder, and after briquetting can be sold for barbecue purposes. The best known example of the use of bark waste is in the south-east of the United States in the southern pine processing belt. (22). In the large sawmills and other processing plants of the region it is the practice to debark the logs so that solid wood residues can be used for pulping and particle board production. Hence there is an accumulation of bark and sawdust which has rather limited economic outlets. The price of charcoal in the USA is high along the East coast and hence it is not surprising that making charcoal briquettes from this waste became economic. The market is largely a barbecue one and hence powder charcoal of high ash content is quite acceptable after briquetting. The carboniser used to produce the charcoal is the Herreshoff multiple hearth roasting furnace described in Chapter 3. The minimum output of this kind of furnace is about one ton of charcoal per hour operating continuously the whole year round. Hence the minimum quantity of bark waste required is about 100 tons per day or about. 5000 tons per year. This quantity of bark is produced from about 70000 m3 of logs per year which is the input to a very large sawmill. A combined sawmill and panel plant can easily yield the required quantity. The bark, and sawdust, if it is used as well is not usually dried before feeding to the furnace. The moisture content is typically about 40% based on the green weight of the feedstock. This industry based on bark waste must always compare the relative profit of burning the bark directly for energy instead of turning it into charcoal briquettes because of the sharp rise in the price of oil which has occurred in recent years. But the proximity of a large high price market for barbecue charcoal tends to make the system still profitable even if coal is substituted for fuel oil. For economic studies on bark carbonisation see Ref. (22). Under the conditions prevailing in most developing countries the major reason for considering complex systems for charcoal production is the increased yield which is possible with such systems. The increased yields need to be carefully verified and compared before committing expenditure. The present day brick kilns of the kinds recommended in (6, 7, 15) are capable under optimum conditions of achieving yields around one ton of charcoal to about 4.5 tons of air dry wood on a year round basis. The best of the complex technologies can do better than this. Well operated Lambiotte type systems can achieve a yield of one ton from 3.5 tons of air dry wood. But whatever the system, proper drying of the wood is essential for high yields and it may be better to spend money on proper organization of air drying and upgrading charcoal making to modern brick kiln methods than invest substantial sums in complex retort systems. A further reason for choosing complex charcoal making systems could be the availability of an agricultural residue that might be processed to produce needed charcoal. The processing of finely divided residues calls for a complex technology system, the only proven one for fines at the moment being the rotary hearth furnace. But careful analysis of alternatives must be made. It may be better from an overall energy point of view in the country to burn the residues completely to produce electrical energy and concentrate on solving the charcoal problem by simpler means involving a much lower level of investment, more certain results and greater flexibility in land use and system operations. It must always be remembered that today's low cost residue immediately acquires an increased price as soon as it is to be used for some commercial purpose. Unless the carbonising plant has total control of its raw material resource it may find itself held to ransom over raw material supplies essential to obtain the return on investment required. To summarize the position can be put in the following way. where finely divided raw material such as agricultural residues, sawdust, bark and so on is available then it must be processed by complex systems of which the rotary hearth furnace with associated briquetting plant is technically viable given a sufficient quantity of residue available 24 hours per day 360 days per year. (Not an easy condition to fulfil). The alternatives to carbonisation are return of the agricultural residue and its nutrients to the soil as part of the cropping cycle rather than removing them and discarding them as ash somewhere else. The needed charcoal would then have to be produced from wood grown in fast growing man-made plantations or natural forests if they exist. In the case of solid wood there is a trade-off between the saving in wood needed to produce a given amount of charcoal and a capital investment involving foreign currency and probably foreign loans. To achieve this result one foregoes the jobs and activity associated with the growing harvesting and carbonising of this extra wood. Where land for forest purposes is not a limiting resource the advantage for most countries probably lies with making the charcoal by the modern brick kiln technologies (1, 5, 6, 7,15). It is interesting to observe that despite the existence of the continuous vertical retort (4, 25) as a proven technology in the developed world for almost 40 years it has had almost no impact in the developing world even in such countries as Brazil (1) where huge amounts of charcoal are produced for the iron smelting industry and where investment in modern industrial methods is common-place

briquettes making machines in pune, maharashtra - dealers & traders

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The deeper the plunger pushes into the pipe, the shorter the remaining pipe that briquettes must travel through, and the lower the friction. If one plunges too far, the briquettes will not be compressed enough and will fall apart. But if the strokes are kept too short, the friction of the briquettes in the pipe can get too high, and the machine shuts down from excess pressure. I then have to manually clear the stuck briquettes by drilling them out of the pipe. The stroke length needs to adapt to the type of wood used. The graph at left shows how the controller operates. After 3.5 seconds of stroke (stage 1), the hydraulic pressure needs to be a minimum of 5 bar. At stage 2 and 3, the pressure must be at least 6 and 10 bar, respectively. If the required pressure is not reached, the cylinder returns for another stroke to press more material. If the pressure peaks out and falls by more than 3.5 bar before reaching stage 4, it also starts a new stroke. Once stage 4 is reached, the cylinder only returns once the pressure drops below 50 bar or when the limit switch is contacted. 1 bar is 100 kilopascal, or about 14.5 PSI. The above time and pressure parameters can be adjusted, and I don't always operate with these values. Solenoid magnet (green) for operating the hydraulics, and electronic pressure sensor below (black). The sensor can read up to 160 bar. Pressing rod, with a protrusion at the end. The protrusion helps multiple strokes form a single briquette that won't fall apart. Attachment of the pressing rod to the main cylinder. The screws allow removal of the pressing rod and help pull it back on the return stroke. Initially, I used a pipe with an inner diameter of 35 mm, but the hydraulic cylinder had insufficient force for this. I added a smaller pipe inside the original pipe, with an inside diameter of 28 mm. With 7 tonnes of force, this should give me a pressure of 1136 kg/cm2. With the larger pipe, it was 727 kg/cm2. More pressure would be even better. I cut the pipe open and bent the resulting 'flaps' outward. The container is bolted to the flaps. This shows where the splitting wedge used to be. In its place, the pressing pipe and attached shavings container. Augers move the shavings to the opening in the pressing pipe. The orange gears engage the augers like a worm gears. The gears help prevent the shavings from bridging over the auger to prevent shavings jams. The shavings container, full of shavings. I used a windshield wiper motor from an Opel Ascona to power the auger ... ... combined with chains and sprockets from a bicycle. A magnetic sensor senses auger rotation. If no pulses are detected for ten seconds of auger operation, the augers are assumed to be jammed and the machine shuts down. Here you can see the auger, removed from the machine. The auger attaches to the hubs using two M8 bolts. This shows how the auger was made. This is the output side of the machine. The wheel engages the briquettes through a slot in the pipe. A magnetic sensor detects the screws in the side of the wheel. Two turns of the wheel are almost exactly one meter of briquette. The quantity of briquette and hours of operation are recorded so I can calculate how many meters of briquette per hour are produced. Another reason for monitoring briquette production: If no rotation is detected for more than three minutes, the machine shuts down. Either the shavings container is empty, or the shavings have jammed or bridged over the augers. The wheel rests on the briquettes by its own weight. Wood screws with the heads cut off act as spikes to engage the briquettes. The briquettes are fed up a ramp to a barrel. The end of the ramp has a wedge to break off the briquettes if they get too long. Otherwise, some will overshoot the barrel. A friend built the electronics for me, but I wrote the software myself. A switch on the front panel allows switching between continuous operation or timed operation (for example, run for one hour). I already had most of the components lying around the house. I only had to buy the pressure sensor and transformers new. The enclosure, motor controllers and magnetic sensors were bought used. So far, this press has cost me between 600 and 800 Euros. The machine could be optimized further, of course. One could pre-compress the shavings, which would speed up production. But that would be too complicated for the time being. I'm thinking of improving the feed mechanism. My most recent change was to run the augers in the opposite direction. Changing the auger direction did in fact increase the output, as the shavings are now pushed more towards the opening in the pipe. I'm also thinking of an alternative to augers, but that will have to wait until other projects are finished. I will write a bit more about my workshop later, but first, I need to do some cleaning up. This shows how I use the briquettes in the wood stove. You can see through the door that it's presently summer, so this is only posing. Alois later added: I added a kilowatt meter to the press, so I could work out its efficiency. Forthebarrel shown, I used a mix of sawdust that produces the best output. I used sawdust from the table saw from cutting firewood, and planer shavings from maple. The barrel contains 51.4 Kg or briquettes, and the machine used 13.5 Kwh of electricity to produce them. With electricity costing about 0.25 Euro/Kwh, my power cost is 3.35 Euro Wood briquettes cost 2.25 Euro per 10 Kg, but my electricity cost is just 0.65 Euro per 10 Kg. But I'm not counting the cost of the machine or the shavings. The machine draws, on average, less than 1 Kw, so this took more than 13 hours to produce. I did not watch the time because the machine runs automatically and unattended. See also: Alois's workshop Jens Larsen's dustextractor modifications Ron Walters Shopvaccyclone separator Homemade jointer Building asmall dust collector Buring sawdustin a wood stove Alois's Table saw laser Alois's bandsaw mill Alois's router lifter Alois's guitar inlays More reader projects on woodgears.ca

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1. Wood preparation 2. Continuous drier 3. Carbonisation retort 4. Hot gases recovery 5. By-products recovery Not much is known about by-products from the condensate produced by specific agricultural wastes when carbonised. But maize cobs have been studied extensively since they are used to produce the solvent agent, fur-fural, when heated with sulphuric acid to moderate temperatures. Generally, one would expect the condensate to have a similar composition to that produced from the carbonisation of wood since the composition of most agricultural wastes is broadly similar, the main differences being a higher ash content and a limited degree of lignification except in the case of nut shells. The list of agricultural residues which have been considered for carbonisation is long but the level of commercial success is limited to a few special cases. As mentioned the only attractive raw materials are the nut shells particularly coconut because of the high priced charcoal which they can produce. The following list gives an idea of some of the various agricultural residues which have been considered as possible charcoal making materials. - nut shells and husks- residues from farm crop processing and canning- sugar cane bagasse- bamboo, scrub and cactus- garbage wastes- straw and reeds- industrial wastes as from carpet factories and pulp mills- processing residues from coffee, cotton and fruit canning As a rule these proposals have foundered on economic grounds or a higher return from alternative uses. The main conditions for charcoal making to be economically possible from these materials are:- The material must be of low or zero value and concentrated at the proposed point of processing. There must be a market able to pay top prices for either powdered charcoal or briquettes, as a high ash product, ruling out most industrial uses. Supply must be either year round or storage must present no problems or the processing method used must be so low cost that it can operate for only a short period of the year. There must be a continuous supply of material available for years ahead to allow the plant to be amortised successfully. Photo. 5. Carbonisation furnace for agricultural residues Photo. 6. Charcoal produced from rice husk and formerly used for briquetting The three main reasons which attract attention to agricultural wastes are:- availability at apparently low cost, the material is dry, and transport costs are zero or very low since the material is concentrated at the point of crop processing.4.4 Bark waste Although not strictly an agricultural waste it is convenient to discuss here the use of bark waste from timber processing as a raw material for charcoal. logs typically carry about 10% of their volume as bark. Both softwood and hardwood bark can be made into charcoal, in both cases the charcoal is in the form of powder, and after briquetting can be sold for barbecue purposes. The best known example of the use of bark waste is in the south-east of the United States in the southern pine processing belt. (22). In the large sawmills and other processing plants of the region it is the practice to debark the logs so that solid wood residues can be used for pulping and particle board production. Hence there is an accumulation of bark and sawdust which has rather limited economic outlets. The price of charcoal in the USA is high along the East coast and hence it is not surprising that making charcoal briquettes from this waste became economic. The market is largely a barbecue one and hence powder charcoal of high ash content is quite acceptable after briquetting. The carboniser used to produce the charcoal is the Herreshoff multiple hearth roasting furnace described in Chapter 3. The minimum output of this kind of furnace is about one ton of charcoal per hour operating continuously the whole year round. Hence the minimum quantity of bark waste required is about 100 tons per day or about. 5000 tons per year. This quantity of bark is produced from about 70000 m3 of logs per year which is the input to a very large sawmill. A combined sawmill and panel plant can easily yield the required quantity. The bark, and sawdust, if it is used as well is not usually dried before feeding to the furnace. The moisture content is typically about 40% based on the green weight of the feedstock. This industry based on bark waste must always compare the relative profit of burning the bark directly for energy instead of turning it into charcoal briquettes because of the sharp rise in the price of oil which has occurred in recent years. But the proximity of a large high price market for barbecue charcoal tends to make the system still profitable even if coal is substituted for fuel oil. For economic studies on bark carbonisation see Ref. (22). Under the conditions prevailing in most developing countries the major reason for considering complex systems for charcoal production is the increased yield which is possible with such systems. The increased yields need to be carefully verified and compared before committing expenditure. The present day brick kilns of the kinds recommended in (6, 7, 15) are capable under optimum conditions of achieving yields around one ton of charcoal to about 4.5 tons of air dry wood on a year round basis. The best of the complex technologies can do better than this. Well operated Lambiotte type systems can achieve a yield of one ton from 3.5 tons of air dry wood. But whatever the system, proper drying of the wood is essential for high yields and it may be better to spend money on proper organization of air drying and upgrading charcoal making to modern brick kiln methods than invest substantial sums in complex retort systems. A further reason for choosing complex charcoal making systems could be the availability of an agricultural residue that might be processed to produce needed charcoal. The processing of finely divided residues calls for a complex technology system, the only proven one for fines at the moment being the rotary hearth furnace. But careful analysis of alternatives must be made. It may be better from an overall energy point of view in the country to burn the residues completely to produce electrical energy and concentrate on solving the charcoal problem by simpler means involving a much lower level of investment, more certain results and greater flexibility in land use and system operations. It must always be remembered that today's low cost residue immediately acquires an increased price as soon as it is to be used for some commercial purpose. Unless the carbonising plant has total control of its raw material resource it may find itself held to ransom over raw material supplies essential to obtain the return on investment required. To summarize the position can be put in the following way. where finely divided raw material such as agricultural residues, sawdust, bark and so on is available then it must be processed by complex systems of which the rotary hearth furnace with associated briquetting plant is technically viable given a sufficient quantity of residue available 24 hours per day 360 days per year. (Not an easy condition to fulfil). The alternatives to carbonisation are return of the agricultural residue and its nutrients to the soil as part of the cropping cycle rather than removing them and discarding them as ash somewhere else. The needed charcoal would then have to be produced from wood grown in fast growing man-made plantations or natural forests if they exist. In the case of solid wood there is a trade-off between the saving in wood needed to produce a given amount of charcoal and a capital investment involving foreign currency and probably foreign loans. To achieve this result one foregoes the jobs and activity associated with the growing harvesting and carbonising of this extra wood. Where land for forest purposes is not a limiting resource the advantage for most countries probably lies with making the charcoal by the modern brick kiln technologies (1, 5, 6, 7,15). It is interesting to observe that despite the existence of the continuous vertical retort (4, 25) as a proven technology in the developed world for almost 40 years it has had almost no impact in the developing world even in such countries as Brazil (1) where huge amounts of charcoal are produced for the iron smelting industry and where investment in modern industrial methods is common-place

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An improved approach is presented to model the product particle size distribution resulting from grinding in high-pressure roll crusher with the aim to be used in standard high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR). This approach uses different breakage distribution function parameter values for a single particle compression condition and a bed compression condition

CHARACTERISTICS a) Vibrating table with metallic framework "Vibratej", with a vibrating unit propelled by an electric 0.5 H.P motor. b) It is operated by one person, and has a production capacity of 400 to 500 tiles for each 8 hours work turn. c) This machine produces 2 tile units for each vibration, and is also useful to produce floor and wall tiles. d) It is easy to maintain, which is a guarantee of effective operation in every country region. 1. Double Frame2. Vibrating base3. Mould holder4. Bottom base tray5. Vibrating box6. Fastener handle7. Flap8. Frame support9. Frame stop bar PRODUCERS Figure ACONTEC S.A.: Calle 13, Mz. N, lote 4, Parque Ind. "El Asesor", Ate - Vitarte, Lima-Perlf. (51-1) 351-0770 Telefax (51-1) 438-2522. CARPINTER METICA "MARCOS": Zafiros 1734 Mz. N . Las Flores 78 La Basilea San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima-Perf. (51-1) 458-1816. FOB PRICE: US$ 1,20000 ADVICE CESEDEM S.R.L: Calle Josel Llano Zapata 331 Of. 401, Miraflores Lima-Perlf. (51-1) 441-8614 Telefax (51-1) 438-2522. TEJACRETO JOSE DEL LLANO ZAPATA N 331 OF. 401 MIRAFLORES LIMA 18TELEFAX. (51-1) 441-8614 TILE MOULDS 1. PANTILE MOULD 2. ROMAN MOULD 3. COLONIAL MOULD (ridge) 4. PLAIN MOULD 1. PANTILE MOULD: Based on original model evolutions, it is produced in Peru since 1990 It is the most used tile in all highland and amazonic zones, because of its similarity to colonial tiles. 2. ROMAN MOULD: Cuban moulds TFVL were introduced since 1995 At the present time, they are not produced in Peru anymore. 3. COLONIAL MOULD: It was created in Peru and used as roofing, ridge, gutter (roof valley) It is also used as complement for other models. They are produced in different styles, in order to compete with similar artisan and industrial tiles. 4. PLAIN MOULD: It was also created in Peru and it is used as ornamental roofing on exclusive residential house roofing in the city and on the beach. FOB PRICES PANTILE M: US$ 7.50 COLONIAL M.: US$ 6.00 PLAIN M US$ 700 * We also produce complementary tools for tile fabrication. JOSE DEL LLANO ZAPATA N 331 OF. 401 MIRAFLORES LIMA 18TELEFAX. (51-1) 441-8614 Roofing ROOF STRUCTURE MCR Tiles Installation ManufacturerDomtec Company Limited1005/29 Soi Prachachuen 30Bangsue, Bangkok 10800, Thailand Tel: 910-1463,910-1465Fax. (66-2) 910-1465 WHAT IS MCR? The Micro Concrete Roofing (MCR) technology is a relatively new technology that can be used to produce inexpensive and reliable concrete tiles for roof cover. The tiles are light, durable and can be made by using locally available raw materials: cement, sand and stone-dust. Figure ROOF STRUCTURE: A roof constitutes the most important part of the building. Hence it is inevitable to take special care during the preparation of the roof and its elements. In order to construct a durable roof, not only the covering material must be of a good quality, but also the entire root structure and cover must function as a coherent system adapted to local conditions such as climate, available skill and structural materials. Roof structures are affected by the following factors: Load: Conventional concrete and clay tiles weigh 50 to 80 kg per square meter whereas the MCR tiles weigh much less. The load of the MCR tiles on the roof structure depends on its thickness. The following Table shows weight factor for specific thickness grades of tiles: Tile Weight / Unit / Weight / Thickness Unit sq.m. sq.m. 6 mm. 1.6 kg 12.5 20.0 kg 8 mm. 2.2 kg 12.5 27.5 kg 10 mm 3.0 kg 12.5 37.5 kg Figure In addition to the load from the tiles themselves, it is necessary to consider the wind and repair loads, and in some cases the snow load as well, depending on local weather conditions. The most crucial load in most locations is the wind load. Strong winds or storm can cause great damage to a roof if it is not well made and securely fixed to the building. In general a maximum wind speed of 150 km/h is taken into account which is equivalent to a storm capable of uprooting trees. This results in suction forces on the roof of up to 70 kg/ sq.m. The wind can also create pressure of up to 30 kg/sq.m. on the roof. Slope: The minimum slope required for the MCR tile roofs is 22 in areas with moderate climate and 30 to 40 in areas with severe driving rains. The slope of the roof is also determined by additional criteria such as aesthetic, form and function. MCR Tile Characteristics: Use for: Roof covering Materials Used:Shape: Concrete (cement, sand, fine aggregate and water) rectangular with broken wedges (special tiles arc manufactured for ridges and edges) Profile: Corrugated Standard Size: 25 cm. x 50 cm. Effective cover: 20 cm. x 40 cm. (1 2.5 tiles per sq.m. area) Thickness: 6 mm, 8 mm. and 10 mm. Weight: 1.6 kg., 2.2 kg and 2.8 kg. Bearing Capacity: 30 kg, 50 kg, and 80 kg. Production Capacity: 200 tiles per day per workstation Battens: The setting of battens is the most important part of MCR roofing on which the proper laying of the tiles and water-tightness depend. The spacing of the battens is 40 cm. The battens can be of wood or steel sections which should be able to bear the weight of the tiles and a man (about 80 kg.) for the safety of the workers during construction and maintenance. Structure: The section and spacing of the purlins and rafters are calculated according to the slope, climate conditions, and weight of the tile. The roof structure needed for MCR roofing is simple and uses light triangular roof trusses. The trusses may be made of wood or metal. But with the increasing scarcity of good quality timber, metal structures are becoming more and more a competitive alternative in roof construction. The main advantage of the metal structure is that it is highly accurate and constitutes an even and stable under-structure for the tiles. TILE INSTALLATION To ensure watertightness, a proper installation of the MCR tiles is required, specially in the most exposed areas, that is, the installation of the side and wall plates. The battens supporting the tiles should be fixed by a skilled roofer. Laying: For the better interlocking of the MCR tiles, they should be first laid from the lower left-hand corner of the slope with the next one overlapping on the top part and then on to form a first vertical row. Then the roofer proceeds with the second and succeeding vertical rows in the same manner. In order to obtain a good interlocking of tiles, it is recommended to install first a complete horizontal row from edge to edge. To align perfectly the columns, it is possible to trace vertical lines with a rope maintained at the top and bottom. Figure When the first slope is completed, the second slope is also laid in the same way. The ridge tiles should be installed gradually as soon as enough columns are completed on the second slope. This avoids the need of climbing on the finished part of the roof. Fastening: For the wind-prone areas, it is very necessary for the tiles to be fastened. In general, all the tiles are fastened by tying the batten with the wire passed through the nib's wire of the tile. Ridge: The ridge line is covered with specially designed tiles and finally bedded in mortar or pre-casted concrete ridge blocks are glued to allow dry fixing of ridge tiles. Ridge tiles overlap by 50 mm. minimum or may be laid with a double row of ridges. Figure Edge: Lateral edges can be made with specially designed tiles; the joint between wall and tiles can be made with a carefully prepared mortar. If there is a roof overhang, a good solution consists in using a fascia board. Hip and Valley: Hip tiles are specially-designed tiles binded with mortar; valley gutters are most often made of galvanized iron sheet under the cut edge of the tile. Figure TRAINING: Training in the MCR tile production as well as training in installation with the tiles can be provided by the manufacturer. Group training may carried out either at the manufacturer's own training center or at a project site with the equipment provided. The training costs are established on a case by case basis. For more information and details, please write to the manufacturer. Roofing WORKSTATION Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles ManufacturerDomtec Company Limited1005/29 Soi Prachachuen 30Bangsue, Bangkok 10800, Thailand Tel: (66-2) 910-1463Fax. (66-2) 910-1465 Description: A complete workstations for producing Micro Concrete Roofing (MCR) tiles consists of a vibrating table, an electric motor, 200 plastic moulds and interface sheets, an admixture container and testing equipment for quality control. Figure The vibrating table consists of a screeding table and a steel chassis. An electric motor is bolted to the machine in order to vibrate the mixture for compaction. A container is used to keep fresh concrete mixture to produce tiles. It is made of a steel box (60 cm x 65 cm x 20 cm) fixed on a steel chassis. The box has a sloped front in order to take out the mixture easily. Moulds are of two types: the moulds for regular tiles are made of ABS plastic and are rectangular in shape with broken wedges. The profile of the tiles is corrugated. The moulds for the ridge tiles are made of wood and steel and have a V-shaped profile. Figure Interface sheets are used to transfer fresh mixture from the vibrating table to the moulds. They are placed on the vibrating table under the screeding frame before the mixture is scooped onto it. The testing equipment used for Bending and Nib Tensile tests consists of a steel frame with two angular sections fixed at a distance of 400 mm. Figure MCR Tile Characteristics: Used for: Covering the roof of different types of buildings Materials Used: Concrete mixture of cement, sand and aggregates. Shape: Rectangular with broken wedges (special tiles can be produced for ridges and edges) Profile: Corrugated Standard Size: 25 cm. x 50 cm. Effective cover: 20 cm. x 40 cm. (12.5 tiles per sq.m. area) Thickness: 6 mm, 8 mm. and 10 mm. Weight: 1.6 kg., 2.2 kg and 2.8 kg. Bearing Capacity: 30 kg, 50 kg. and 80 kg. Production Capacity: 200 tiles per day per workstation MICRO CONCRETE The Micro Concrete Roofing technology is a relatively new technology that can be used to produce inexpensive and reliable concrete tiles for roof cover. The tiles are light, durable and can be made using locally available raw materials: cement, sand and stone-dust. Figure RAW MATERIALS: Cement: Portland cement needs to be used in the production of MCR tiles. The cement should be of the standard required for normal concretework. The amount of the cement required for a tile of 8 mm. thickness is 0.45 kg. Sand: The sand should be well graded, clean and free of organic materials. The clay and silt content of the sand should not exceed 4%. Sand should be seived with a mesh size of 2 mm. Stone-dust: It should have the same characteristics and properties as sand. The maximum size of the aggregate should not exceed two-thirds of the tile thickness. They should be as clean and free from clay as the sand. Water: The water should be clean and fresh, and free of salt. If the water quality is doubtful, it can be tested in laboratory for salt content and other chemical contamination. Colourant: The MCR tiles are naturally light grey in colour. To achieve a more attractive product they may be coloured by using additives to the admixture such as iron oxides or carbon black (darker grey tiles) or, they can be painted using a spray gun or brushes. Placement: Metal wire is used for fixing the tiles to the roof structure. Galvanized steel wire of 2 mm. diameter should be used for this purpose as it will not corrode. These wires are placed in the nibs when the tiles are fabricated. PRODUCTION PROCESS: The general steps are the following: - Mortar Preparation- Vibrating and moulding- 24 hrs mould curing- Demoulding- Curing / storage- Quality control Figure ROOF STRUCTURE: In order to construct a reliable roof, not only the roofing material must be of good quality, but also the entire roof must function as a coherent system adapted to local conditions such as the climate, the available skills and structural materials. Roof structures are affected by the following factors: Load: Conventional concrete and clay tiles weigh 50 to 80 kg per square meter whereas MCR tiles on the roof structure varies from 20 to 37.5 kg per sq.m. depending on thickness. Consideration should be given to live loads such as wind and rain depending on local conditions. Slope: The minimum slope required for the MCR tile roofs is 22 in areas with moderate climate and 30 to 40 in areas with severe driving rains. Battens: The spacing of the battens for MCR tiles is 40 cm. The battens can be of wood or steel sections. Structure: The section and spacing of the purlins and rafters arc calculated according to the type of materials, slope, climatic conditions, and weight of the tiles. TRAINING: Training in production of MCR tiles and in managing production units can be provided by Habitech Center at its typical production facilities on AIT campus. Follow-ups and testing for quality control of the production are provided as an integral part of the training. The training cost is established on a case by case basis. For information and details, please contact: Habitech Center Asian Institute of TechnologyG.P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok 10501Tel: (66-2)524-5611Fax: (66-2) 516-2128 Equipment Characteristics: Size and Weight of Vibrating Table 60 cm x 64 cm x 92 cm 78 kg Size and weight of Container 60 cm x 70 cm x 91 cm 28 kg Size and Weight of 200 Plastic Mould 36 cm x 6 1 cm x 120 cm 120 kg Size and Weight of 200 Interlace Sheets 31 cm x 50 cm x 30 cm 14 kg Weight of Tools 39 kg Total Weight of Equipment 279 kg Shipment of equipment arranged by manufacturer Cost of the Equipment (ex - work) US$ APPRO-TECHNO S.A. Ralisations en Tuiles Fibro-Mortier - Realizations in Fibre-Mortar Tiles Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Processus de Fabrication - Production Process 1. Dosage et mnge du sable, ciment, colorant et fibres. Dosage and mixing of sand, cement, colourant and fibres. 2. Etalement grossier du mnge. Rough spreading of the mix. 3. Vibration et lissage final du mnge. Vibration and final smoothing of the mix. 4. Ouverture automatique du cadre Automatic opening of the frame. 5. Mise en forme avec l'interface sur le support double. Giving the final shape with the interface on to the double support. 6. Empilage des supports pour la premi cure de 24 heures. Stacking of the supports for the first 24 hour cure. 7. Dulage de la tuile et vurage Demoulding of the rite and removal of the excess flashes. 8. Bassins de cure (5 jours). Curing tanks (5 to 6 days). 1.1. What are fibro concrete roofing tiles or micro concrete roofing tiles ? Fibre concrete or micro concrete roofing tiles are an excellent covering material with very high insulating (thermal and accoustic) qualities; their durability and resistance are also worth mentioning especially in comparison with galvanized roofing sheets. These qualities, together with other macro and micro economic aspects of the so called locally productible building materials make this type of roofing particularly appropriate to the realities of developping countries. The raw materials consist of sand (average granulometry or well graded i.e. 0,06 to 0,2 mm), Portland Cement (CPA 35), organic or synthetic fibres (or aggregates) and possibly colourants (chemical pigments). The tiles can be 8 or 10 mm tiles. We strongly advice against the production of 6 mm thick thiles due to their brittleness, bad resistence to violent winds (hurricanes) and to the problems encountered during their implementation. The money saved in terms of raw material does not compensate these disadvantages. The manufacturing process is relatively easy. However, one should keep in mind that the productivity and the products quality are directly related to a good knowledge of the material and of the equipment as well as to a rational organisation of the work stations; this is the reason why APPRO-TECHNO offers and strongly advices a complete and professional training (see 2.9.). The technological process can be summed up as follows *: - cement and sand (ratio varying between 1:2 and 1:3) are drymixed into a mortar in a concrete mixer. Organic (15 mm long chopped pieces) or synthetic fibres are then added (so called Fibre Concrete Roofing tiles or F.C.R.). If, for one or another reason, it is not possible or preferable to use vegetal or synthetic fibres, they can be replaced by aggregates (granulometry not bigger than 2/3 of the final roofing tile thickness). In that case, the final product is referred to as Micro Concrete Roofing tile (M.C.R.). - the mortar is then laid on a plastic interface (already on the vibrating table) inside the screeding frame thanks to a mortar scoop. The mortar should be vibrated 45 seconds. The quality and duration of the vibration play an essential part in the quality of the final product (for instance, too long a vibration prevents the distribution of the various elements from being homogeneous, since the heavier elements tend to sink). The nib is also moulded during that time. - the vibrated mortar is then gently transferred onto a support, which will give its final shape to the tile. - at this level, the galvanized iron loop is inserted into the nib (to fix the tile on the roof). - the tile should then remain on the support for 24 hours for shaping and drying and be covered with a plastic sheet to avoid cracks. The tiles are then put in a curing tank for 5 days (the humidity rate being 100 %) and stocked 15/20 days in a shed for final curing. From then on, they can be used or sold. * a thorough description can also be found in the book by G. Brys, Tuiles en Fibro mortier, proc de production et pose en toiture, Gen, B.I.T., 1988. 1.2. Advantages. FCR/MCR have many advantages which often make them the ideal solution as far as the roofing issue is concerned in developping countries. These advantages can be identified on severals levels: Qualities of the roofing material as such: For the man in street, one of the essential things in every day's life is to have an irreproachable weatherproof roofing material above his head. In this respect, FCR/MCR meet this expectation. But, once again, as for any industrial product, a strict, permanent and intransigent quality control has to be set up. The first function of a roof is to protect its inhabitants from outside elements such as rain and sun. As far as rain is concerned, FCR/MCR are perfectly waterproof. Moreover, their accoustic insulating qualities are such that no comparison can be made between a FCR/MCR roof and a roof covered with galvanized iron sheets when it rains. Furthermore, it has been possible to verify the excellent resistance of the FCR/MCR roofs to violent winds in comparison to galvanized iron sheets on the occasion of the Hugo hurricane in 1989: most FCR/MCR roofs have not been affected by the hurricane whereas most other roofs have been blown away. In some risky areas, it is even advisable to use hurricane tiles (with a double fixing device) or thicker tiles (10 mm). As far as thermic insulation is concerned, they can simply not be compared with galvanized iron sheets, which actually heat houses rather than cool them. This advantage is decisive in areas where coolness is so much looked for and so expensive. Their mechanical resistance and resistance to shocks are also worth mentioning (a 8 mm tile should resist to a hanging weight of 50 kg). This is important since many galvanized iron sheets roofs are damaged by stones or fruits. Their life expectancy can be estimated to 15 years at least, which makes their purchase by the final customer very profitable. Last but not least, a look at the front cover picture will convince you of the esthetic qualities of this roofing material (available in various colours). Economic advantages: Beside the quality of the covering material itself, the price at which it can be produced or sold plays an essential part. This price logically varries according to local conditions (raw material, workforce, competitors,...) but, generally speaking, it can be claimed without much risk of error that the cost price of a FCR/MCR roof is cheaper than for other types of roofing (e.g. galvanized iron sheets or fired roofing tiles). It is important to make this comparison in terms of roof and not of product (i.e. tiles). It is obvious that the roof substructure is different for FCR/MCR and for galvanized iron sheets. For instance, the substructure for FCR/MCR roofing is much lighter (1 m2 = 26,6 kg) and consequently cheaper than for fired tiles roofing. Many casestudies have shown that 30 to 60 % of the cost price of a roof can be saved with a FCR/MCR roofing in comparison with other types of roofing. In one word, the biggest trump of FCR/MCR is its cost price. On a macroeconomic level, it is worth noting some advantages likely to encourage the dissimination of this technology and the official support of the local authorities. First of all, the type of industrial unit that is proposed (see 2.5.) allows to some extend a decentralisation of the industry of building materials. On its scale of course, it enables the authorities to struggle against the process of rural exodus and wild urbanization which affect most developping countries by using local workforce in several production units situated in rural or peri-urban areas. Beside the creation of jobs in different areas, the part of value added locally is much more important than for imported materials. Little initial investment and little energy input in production being required, FCR/MCR also means substential savings in terms of foreign exchange. Several studies have shown (e.g. in Kenya*) that the part of foreign exchange used for FCR/MCR is by far lower than for galvanized iron sheet: - 66 to 75 % of the cost price of the galvanized iron sheets.- 17 % of the cost price of FCR/MCR. * P. Coughlin: Steel vs tile roofing. What's appropriate for Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, Economic Department, University of Nairobi, 1985. Environemental advantages: the main advantage on this level is that, little energy input being required, no firewood (fired roofing tiles) or other combustible (as for the manufacture of iron sheets) will be necessary. This may be a major asset in the struggle against desertification. Technological simplicity: A last major advantage is the technological simplicity of the production process of FCR/MCR. As a matter of fact, building and running a kiln (even a simple one) is not very easy. Manufacturing galvanized iron sheet requires a heavy industry. Producing FCR/MCR is relatively simple. But one must keep in mind that the production of good quality FCR/MCR can only be reached by respecting all the production parameters very carefully. This is the reason why we insist (see also 2.9.) very much on a professional training. 2. Description of the TEGULAMATIC unit. 2.1. Brief description of the double vibrating table. Thanks to its robustness and its conception, the TEGULAMATIC can conply with an intensive use by unskilled workforce. The frame of the table consists of sectional steel sheets which give the necessary robustness for ideal vibration. The basic vibrator is made in one piece and has the following characteristics: 3000 r/m, 0,095 kw, 220 V monophase. 220/380 V triphase, 50/60 Herz (tropicalization also on request), 24 or 12 V in continuous and alternating current are also available on request. This is very important since the quality of the final product greatly depends on the ratio quality of vibration / time of vibration. This type of vibration makes it also possible to produce vibrated concrete tiles. Its output capacity can reach 700 tiles/day; it depends on the quantity of double supports available. 2.2. Simplification of the work. The conception of the vibrating table is such that the operator's work is simplified to a maximum: in this way, he can exclusively concentrate on the quality of the final product thanks to the following devices: 1) Placing to the operator's disposal of: - the 200 micron plastic interface sheet- the rubber mortar box (52 x 32 x 22 cm)- the metallic screeding trowel. 2) 2 adjustable and retractable stringers allowing a soft gliding of whatever type of tile on its support. 3) The sectional sheet of the vibrating surface allows a simultaneous blocking of the frame in 3 different places by a simple pressure by the operator's foot or hand (double control). 4) Each blocking point is individually adjustable, which avoids the use of a waterproofness joint between the frame and the vibrating table. 5) The change of frame (to manufacture other types of tiles) is facilitated by the use of 3 standardized hinges. 6) An automatic opening system of the frame enables the operator to hold the 2 nibs with his thumbs. 7) The vibrator is also controlled by a pedal on the same axis as the pedal used for the blocking of the frame. 8) The level of the table can be adjusted by 4 bolts; checking is permanent thanks to 2 water-gauges fixed on visible places. 2.3. Basic equipment accompanying each Tegulamatic unit. - 1 Frame for 2 overlapping pantiles 490 x 235 (12,5 tiles/m2) - 1 Frame for 1 overlapping under-ridge (same dimensions)for 1 overlapping edgetiles (same dimensions) - 1 Frame for two 490 mm long ridges (overlapping: 70 to 80 mm) - 1 Concrete-mixer (140 I) - 1 Roll of 300 mm wide and 200 micron thick plastic sheet to be locally cut into 1000 interface sheets (500 mm long) - 1 Mortar scoop for 8 mm pantiles (1 scoop = 1 tile) - 1 Mortar box 52 x 32 x 22 cm (30 I) - 1 metallic screeding trowel - 1 balance (4 kgs) - 1 ten liter (graduated) rubber bucket - 1 hand-drill for the twisting of the loop - 1 quality control material (resistence to shocks) - 1 quality control material (resistence to flexion) - 1 sample of synthetic fibres - 1 sample of red colourant 2.4. Double supports These galvanized steel double supports are 8 mm thick. This provides a better solidity and a longer life expectancy to the supports, which are, eventually, the most expensive part of the production unit. Moreover, the fact that the supports are made out of galvanized steel allows the operator to clean them in an easier way and to remove the cement sticking to their surface than if they were made out of plastic. They are 1080 mm long so that 2 tiles can be laid on each support. 1 complete double support for pantiles weights 4,03 kg (not packed); 1 complete double support for ridges weights 4,8 kgs (not packed). 2 galvanized steel lateral distance-pieces provided with each support are screwed and allow to stack the supports with 40 mm space between each support. Due to the cost of the supports, we offer 7 types of TEGULAMATIC units AP, as detained in the following table. For an optimal use of the vibrating table and for a double pitch roof, we advice the following: - 375 supports for 650 pantiles- 25 supports for 50 ridges This quantity enables the operator to start the day with a reserve of 50 supports (not used the day before). 2.5. 7 types of unit Type Qty sup. pantiles Qty sup. ridges Daily production M2 / roof daily AP 100 95 5 190 tuiles 15m2 AP 150 145 5 290 tuiles 23m2 AP 200 190 10 380 tuiles 30m2 AP 250 235 15 470 tuiles 37m2 AP 300 280 20 560 tuiles 44m2 AP 350 325 25 650 tuiles 52m2 AP 400 375 25 700 tuiles 56m2 2.6. Raw material for one month production (25 days/690 tiles) for the production of 17 250 tiles (8 mm). - 22,5 m3 sand - 9,375 T. cement - 187,5 kg sisal or 18,75 kg synthetic fibre - 281,250 kg colourant - 9 kg galvanized wire (1 mm) It should be noted that fibre can be replaced by aggregates (max. 6 mm);the quantity is determined by the type of aggregate. - 4 874 l water 2.7. 30 daily mixing operations for 690 tiles in a 140 l concrete-mixer (real capacity = 110 L) (1 mix = 23 tiles (8 mm)) - 30 liters sand = 3 buckets of 10 liters- 10 liters cement = 1 buckets of 10 liters- 250 gr sisal (natural fibre) or 25 gr synthetic fibre (for aggregate see ratio density/volume)- 375 gr of colourant- 6,5 l water 2.8. Cost price of 1 tile or 1 m2 of roof. On your request, we can provide with you with a complete feasibility study free of charge for financing purposes. Therefore, on your request, we can send you a questionary enabling us to calculate the cost price of 1 m2 of roof according to local parameters; the reliability of your study will mainly depend on the correctness of your answers. The above-mentioned quantities will already give you a rough idea for the comparison with the existing materials in your area. Moreover, we remind you that 12,5 tiles are necessary to cover 1 m2 of roof, which means a lighter framework (26,6 kg (8 mm tiles)/m2). 2.9. Training. Training (be it from APPRO-TECHNO or from a training center known for the quality of its transfer of technology) is essential and can be considered as an investment at the same level as equipment. The optimal production of good quality FCR/MCR and the correct dissimination of the technology are greatly bound to a theoretical but also practical training (technology and management). This is the reason why APPRO-TECHNO offers a training on the site or in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). For further information on this subject, please contact us. 2.10. Packing details. AP 100: 1.225 kg (total gross weight) 3,53 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 300 kg / GW 450 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,60 m., NW 680 kg / GW 750 kg AP 150: 1.625 kg (total gross weight) 3,82 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 360 kg / GW 475 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,80 m., NW 1.000 kg / GW 1.150 kg AP 200: 2.050 kg (total gross weight) 4,03 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 475 kg / GW 600 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,95 m., NW 1.300 kg / GW 1.450 kg AP 250: 2.430 kg (total gross weight) 4,28 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 450 kg / GW 600 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,12 m., NW 1.720 kg / GW 1.830 kg AP 300: 2.810 kg (total gross weight) 4,57 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 450 kg / GW 600 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,32 m., NW 2.100 kg/GW 2.210 kg AP 350: 3.075 kg (total gross weight) 5,57 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 550 kg / GW 690 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 2,02 m., NW 2.200 kg / GW 2.385 kg AP 400: 3.345 kg (total gross weight) 4,83 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 1.205 kg / GW 1.365 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,50 m., NW 1.780 kg / GW 1.980 kg TEXTE FRANIS 1.1. Qu'est-ce que la tuile en fibro-mortier ou en micro-mortier ? La tuile en fibro-mortier est un matau de couverture dont les qualitd'isolation (thermique et accoustique), la durabilitt la rstance mnique et aux impacts sont remarquables; ces caractstiques li aux aspects micro et macro-nomiques des mataux de construction localement productibles rendent ce type de couverture particuliment adaptaux ritdes pays en voie de dloppement. Les matis premis utilis sont du sable de granulomie moyenne (granulomie de 0,06 mm homog), du ciment Portland CPA 45 ou CPA 35 (ou ivalent), des fibres vtales (ou des graveleux lattiques) ou ntuellement du colorant. Les tuiles peuvent e produites en isseur de 8 ou 10 mm. Nous dnseillons fortement la fabrication de tuiles de 6 mm d'isseur vu les probls de fragilitmise en uvre et mauvaise tenue aux vents violents. L'nomie risau niveau des matis premis est donc une fausse nomie. Le processus technologique de fabrication est relativement simple (et certainement adapta main d'oeuvre locale). Toutefois, il faut bien garder 'esprit organisation rationnelle de tous les postes de travail. C'est la raison pour laquelle APPRO-TECHNO propose et conseille vivement une formation (voir 2.9.). Le processus technologique peut se rmer comme suit: - un mortier de ciment-sable (ratio variant de 1:2 :3) est prrans un mngeur. On y ajoute ensuite les fibres vtales tronn au prable en morceau de 15 mm ou synthques (appele fibro-mortier). Si pour une raison ou une autre, il n'est pas possible ou prrable d'utiliser des fibres, on peut les remplacer par du graveleux lattique (dont la granulomie ne dsse pas 2/3 de l'isseur du produit final) appele micro-mortier). - Le mortier est ensuite ds l'aide d'une pelle doseuse sur un interface en plastique posur la table vibrante, 'inteur du cadre de vibration. Le mortier doit e vibrendant environ 45 secondes. La qualitt la durde vibration jouent un rtrimportant dans la qualitu produit final (par exemple, une vibration trop longue rend la rrtition des diffnts ments peu homog car les ments plus lourds ont tendance edescendre). On moule lement pendant ce temps le talon d'accrochage. - ensuite, le mortier vibrst transf en douceur sur un support de mise en forme qui a la m forme que la tuile finale. - e stade, on noie un fil de fer galvanisans le talon de la tuile (pour l'accrochage a charpente). - ensuite, on laisse la tuile sur un support pendant 24 heures pour la mise en forme et le sage; elle doit e recouverte d'un plastique pour ter les fissures. - Le lendemain, les tuiles de la veille sont retir dcatement de leurs supports et sont vur avec un couteau. Les tuiles sont ensuite mises urer pendant 5 jours en milieu humide (100% d'humiditet 15 0 jours sous abri. A partir de ce moment, elles peuvent e mises en uvre ou vendues. 1.2. Avantages. La tuile fibro ou micro-mortier prnte de nombreux avantages qui en font dans de nombreux cas la solution ide au probl de la couverture dans les pays en voie de dloppement. Ces avantages se situent lusieurs niveaux. Qualitdu matau en tant que tel. L'avantage le plus important au niveau de la vie quotidienne est de pouvoir disposer d'un matau de couverture d'une qualitrrochable. A cet rd, plusieurs aspects peuvent e souligntout en gardant bien 'esprit que comme pour tout produit industriel un contrde qualittrict, permanent et intransigeant doit e mis en place. La fonction premi d'une toiture est de protr les habitants contre des ments exteurs tels que la pluie et le soleil. A ce propos, les tuiles fibro ou micro-mortier offrent dans le premier cas (la pluie) une protection absolue puisqu'elles sont parfaitement impermles. De plus, leurs qualitd'isolation accoustique les rendent incomparables par rapport aux t lorsqu'il pleut. Par ailleurs, le cyclone Hugo de 1989 dans les Antilles a permis de vfier la bonne tenue des toitures en fibro-mortier aux vents violents par rapport aux t ondul. De plus, dans les zones isques, il est possible et m recommand'utiliser des tuiles ouragan ouble accrochage ou des tuiles plus isses (10 mm). De plus, leur isolation thermique est incomparable par rapport a tondultraditionnelle qui rauffe plutu'elle ne rafrait les maisons dans des pays ofraeur des maisons constitue l'aspiration de chacun malgron coev Ensuite, la tuile fibro-mortier a une excellente rstance mnique (une tuile de ce type d'une isseur de 8 mm doit pouvoir rster au minimum ne charge suspendue de 50 kg) et surtout une trbonne rstance aux impacts. Lr exemple, les impacts de pierres ou de fruits abnt les t ondul de fa irrdiable, les tuiles fibro-mortier font preuve d'une excellente rstance e genre de choc. Leur espnce de vie est d'au moins quinze ans, ce qui rend leur achat trrentable pour le client final. Enfin, elles redonnent naissance n style traditionnel disparu au profit d'un non-style. Un simple coup d'il aux photos vous en convaincra. De plus, la tuile est risable en plusieurs couleurs. Avantages d'ordre nomique. Outre la qualitu matau de couverture lui-m, le prix auquel il peut e produit ou vendu joue un ressentiel. Il est certain que ces prix sont en fonction des conditions locales (prix des matis premis, de la main d'oeuvre, concurence, etc...) mais, de fa grale, on peut affirmer que le prix de revient des toitures en tuiles fibro ou micro-mortier est nettement moins vue celui des autres types de couverture (t galvanis et tuiles en terre cuite pour ne citer que les principales). Nous parlons bien ici de toiture. En effet, il ne faut pas se limiter au seul produit (la tuile) mais bien s'ndre a toiture dans sa globalitSans entrer dans les dils, il est dent que les tuiles en terre cuite (trlourdes), les tuiles en fibro-mortier ou les t galvanis ne requint pas le m type de charpente. A titre d'exemple, les tuiles en fibro-mortier demandent une toiture beaucoup plus lre et donc beaucoup moins coe que la terre cuite (les tuiles en fibro-mortier de 8 mm d'isseur ne pnt que 26,6 kg/m2). De nombreuses des ont montrue l'nomie risgr ne couverture en fibro ou micro-mortier va de 30 0 % par rapport aux autres variantes (terre cuite, tgalvanis. Il faut donc reconnae que, la tuile fibro-mortier a un rme atout pour elle: son prix ! Au niveau macro-nomique, les avantages sont considbles pour les pays en vole de dloppement. Ceci devrait encourager la dissimination de la technologie et l'aide officielle des autoritlocales. En premier lieu, le petit type d'unitndustrielle (voir 2.5.) propos(qui sont par ailleurs modulables en fonction du nombre de supports) permet une certaine dntralisation de l'industrie. Elle permet, on elle bien entendu, d'enrayer le processus d'exode rural et d'urbanisation galoppante qui frappe de fa cruelle la plupart des pays en voie de dloppement en employant la main d'oeuvre en de nombreux points de production (zone urbaine, zone p-urbaine et zone rurale). A cde cette crion d'emploi, aspect non-nigeable, une plus value locale relativement (certainement par rapport aux mataux import importante est cr. Ensuite, la dndance par rapport aux devises est nettement moins importante que dans le cas de t import vu l'investissement de drt rit et l'emploi restreint d'rgie. A ce propos, plusieurs des ont montrnotamment au Kenya *) que la part des devises utilispour les t ondul: - 66 5 % du prix de vente de la tondul- 17% du prix de vente des tuiles fibro-mortier. * P. Coughlin: Steel vs tile roofing, What's appropriate for Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, Economic Department, University of Nairobi, 1985. Avantages pour l'environnement: A ce niveau, le principal avantage est constituar l'emploi restreint d'rgie: ni le bois de chauffe (tuiles cuites), ni quelqu'autre combustible n'est nssaire. Ceci constitue certainement un argument de poids dans la lutte actuelle contre la drtification. Simplicitechnologique Un dernier avantage important dont nous avons d touchn mot est la simplicitechnologique du processus de production de tuiles fibro-mortier En effet, construire un four (m relativement simple) et le faire fonctionner correctement n'est pas simple. Fabriquer des t ondul nssite une industrie lourde. Produire des tuiles fibro-mortier est relativement simple. Encore faut-il qu'elles soient de bonne qualitSeul le respect de tous les parames de fabrication garantit cette qualitC'est la raison pour laquelle, nous tenons nsister qu'une formation professionnelle (voir lement 2.9.) est souvent souhaitable. 2. Description de l'unitEGULAMATIC. 2.1. Description sommaire de la table vibrante double. Sa robustesse et sa conception lui permettent de rndre n usage intensif et ne utilisation par une main d'uvre peu qualifi Le b de la table est constitue t profil qui lui confnt la robustesse nssaire pour une vibration ide. Le vibrateur de base est de conception monobloc - 3000 T/M - 0,095 KW/ 220 V MONO. Sur demande 220/380 V triphas50 ou 60 podes (la protection tropicalispeut e obtenue sur demande) ou 24 V et 12 V en courant continu et alternatif peuvent e obtenus. Cet ment est extrment important puisque la qualitu produit final dnd en bonne partie du rapport qualite la vibration / temps de vibration. Le type de vibration permet de riser lement des tuiles en bn vibrsans sisal). Sa capacite production peut aller jusqu'00 tuiles/jour; elle dnd du nombre de supports doubles disponibles. 2.2. Simplification des options. Sa conception est telle que le travail de l'opteur est simplifiu maximum; il peut ainsi se concentrer uniquement sur la qualitu produit final notamment gr aux diffnts dils repris ci-dessous: 1) Mise isposition ortde main de l'opteur de: - La feuille de PVC appelinterface de 200 MICRONS.- Un bac ortier en caoutchouc de 52 X 32 X 22 cm (30 L)- Un emplacement pour la taloche mllique. 2) 2 longerons rables en hauteur et ractables permettant un glissement en douceur de la tuile quel que soit le mod. 3) Le profil de la surface vibrante permet un blocage du cadre de la tuile rois endroits simultanpar une simple manuvre commandau pied ou a main (commande double). 4) Chaque point de blocage est rable individuellement, ce qui te l'emploi d'un joint d'nchntre le cadre et la surface vibrante de la table. 5) La permutation des cadres permettant de riser les diffntes tuiles se fait facilement par l'emploi de 3 charnis normalis. 6) Un syst automatique d'ouverture du cadre permet 'opteur de maintenir avec les 2 pouces les talons des 2 tuiles. 7) La commande du vibrateur se fait lement par une ple au pied montsur le m axe que le blocage du cadre. 8) Le niveau de la table est assurar 4 boulons et le contrest permanent gr niveaux fixes endroits visuels, 2.3. Equipement de base. Avec chaque table vibrante double, nous fournissons: - 1 cadre pour 2 tuiles ecouvrement de 490 X 235 M/M -12,5 tuiles/m2. - 1 cadre pour 1 tuile ecouvrement sous faiti (ms dimensions). - 1 cadre pour 1 tuile ecouvrement de rive (ms dimensions). - 1 cadre pour 2 tuiles faitis de 490 M/M (recouvrement de 70 0). - 1 bnni de 140 L, - 1 rouleau de PVC de 300 MM de largeur appelnterface de 200 microns uper localement en 1000 feuilles de 500 MM de long. - 1 pelle doseuse pour tuile 8 M/M (1 pelle = 1 tuile). - 1 bac ortier de 52 X 32 X 22 cm (30 litres). - 1 taloche mllique. - 1 balance 4 kgs (750 gr de colorant et 500 gr de sisal pour 46 tuiles de 8 m/m). - 1 seau de 10 L gradun caoutchouc. - 1 drille pour le torsadage du fil de fer. - Matel de contrde qualites tuiles (rstance aux chocs). - Matel de contrde qualites tuiles (rstance a flexion). - 1 antillon de fibre synthque. - 1 antillon de colorant rouge. 2.4. Supports doubles de mise en forme de sage. Ces supports doubles en acier galvanisnt 0,8 M d'isseur. Ceci permet d'assurer une soliditt une espnce de vie beaucoup plus longue des supports (qui constituent en fin de compte une des parties les plus onuses de toute unite production de tuiles fibro-mortier). De plus, le fait que la mati premi soit de l'acier galvanisermet de nettoyer les supports plus facilement que ceux con en plastique et d'miner notamment tout rdu de ciment qui viendrait s'y coller. Les supports doubles ont une longueur de 1080 M/M afin de dser facilement 2 tuiles sur un seul support. 1 support double complet pour tuile ecouvrement p 4,03 kg (non emball 1 support double complet pour tuile faiti p 4,8 kg (non emball Les 2 entretoises latles en acier galvanisournies avec le support sont boulonn et permettent d'obtenir un empilage parfait en laissant 40 M/M d'espace pour les 2 tuiles. Vu le co ces supports, nous offrons 7 propositions type AP dill dans le tableau suivant. Pour une utilisation optimale de la table vibrante et de la demande normale pour un toit eux versants, nous conseillons la formule suivante: - 375 supports pour le sage de 650 tuiles ecouvrement.- 25 supports pour le sage de 50 tuiles faitis. Cette quantite supports permet de drrer la journde travail avec une rrve de 50 supports non utilisla veille. 2.5.7 TYPES D'UNIT Type Qty recouvrement Qty Faitis Production / jour M2 / jour AP 100 95 5 190 tuiles 15m2 AP 150 145 5 290 tuiles 23m2 AP 200 190 10 380 tuiles 30m2 AP 250 235 15 470 tuiles 37m2 AP 300 280 20 560 tuiles 44m2 AP 350 325 25 650 tuiles 52m2 AP 400 375 25 700 tuiles 56m2 2.6. Mati premi rir mensuellement (25 jours 90 tuiles) pour la production de 17.250 tuiles de 8 mm. - 22,5 m3 de sable - 9,375 T de ciment - 187,5 kg de fibre de sisal ou 18,75 kg de fibre synthque - 281,250 kg de colorant - 9 kg de fil de fer galvanise 1 mm Il est oter que la fibre peut e remplacpar du graveleux latque de 6 mm maximum (quantit drminer en fonction du type de graveleux). - 4.874 l d'eau 2.7. 30 mnges rir par journ de 690 tuiles dans un mngeur de 140 litres (capacite 110 litres) 1 mnge = 23 tuiles de 8 mm d'isseur. - 30 litres de sable = 3 seaux de 10 litres - 10 litres de ciment = 1 seau de 10 litres - 250 gr de fibre de sisal ou 25 gr de fibermesh (pour le graveleux, cfr le parame rapport densitolume) - 375 gr de colorant - 6,5 l d'eau 2.8. Calcul du prix de revient de la tuile ou du m2 de toiture. A votre demande, nous pouvons vous riser gratuitement l'de de faisabilitancaire. Un questionnaire nous permettant d'blir le prix de revient du m2 de toiture en fonction des parames locaux vous sera envoy votre simple demande; la fiabilite notre de dndra essentiellement de l'exactitude de vos rnses. Les quantitdes matis premis reprises ci-dessus vous permettent d de comparer avec les mataux existants dans votre ron. De plus nous vous rappelons qu'il faut 12,5 tuiles au m2 ce qui reprnte un poids de 26,6 kg par m2 pour de la tuile de 8 mm d'isseur et donc une charpente plus lre. 2.9. Formation. Prir une formation (qu'elle soit d'APPRO-TECHNO ou de tout autre institut de formation reconnu pour la qualite son transfert de technologie) est trimportant et peut e consid comme un investissement au m titre que le matel. La fabrication optimale de tuiles fibro-mortier de qualitt la rsite de la dissnation de la technologie sont largement li ne formation thique et surtout pratique (technologie et gestion). C'est pour ces raisons qu'APPRO-TECHNO propose une formation soit sur le site soit bidjan (Cd'Ivoire). Pour plus de renseignements e sujet, veuillez nous contacter. 2.10 Dils du collissage. AP 100: 1.225 kg (poids brut total) 3,53 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 300 kg / PB 450 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,60 m., PN 680 kg / PB 750 kg AP 150: 1.625 kg (poids brut total) 3,82 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 360 kg / PB 475 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,80 m., PN 1.000 kg / PB 1.150 kg AP 200: 2.050 kg (poids brut total) 4,03 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 475 kg / PB 600 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,95 m., PN 1.300 kg / PB 1.450 kg AP 250: 2.430 kg (poids brut total) 4,28 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 450 kg / PB 600 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,12 m., PN 1.720 kg / PB 1.830 kg AP 300: 2.810 kg (poids brut total) 4,57 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 450 kg / PB 600 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,32 m., PN 2.100 kg/ PB 2.210 kg AP 350: 3.075 kg (poids brut total) 5,57 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 550 kg / PB 690 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 2,02 m., PN 2.200 kg / PB 2.385 kg AP 400: 3.345 kg (poids brut total) 4,83 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 1.205 kg / PB 1.365 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,50 m., PN 1.780 kg / PB 1.980 kg DEALER:

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