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4. Ouverture automatique du cadre Automatic opening of the frame. 5. Mise en forme avec l'interface sur le support double. Giving the final shape with the interface on to the double support. 6. Empilage des supports pour la premi cure de 24 heures. Stacking of the supports for the first 24 hour cure. 7. Dulage de la tuile et vurage Demoulding of the rite and removal of the excess flashes. 8. Bassins de cure (5 jours). Curing tanks (5 to 6 days). 1.1. What are fibro concrete roofing tiles or micro concrete roofing tiles ? Fibre concrete or micro concrete roofing tiles are an excellent covering material with very high insulating (thermal and accoustic) qualities; their durability and resistance are also worth mentioning especially in comparison with galvanized roofing sheets. These qualities, together with other macro and micro economic aspects of the so called locally productible building materials make this type of roofing particularly appropriate to the realities of developping countries. The raw materials consist of sand (average granulometry or well graded i.e. 0,06 to 0,2 mm), Portland Cement (CPA 35), organic or synthetic fibres (or aggregates) and possibly colourants (chemical pigments). The tiles can be 8 or 10 mm tiles. We strongly advice against the production of 6 mm thick thiles due to their brittleness, bad resistence to violent winds (hurricanes) and to the problems encountered during their implementation. The money saved in terms of raw material does not compensate these disadvantages. The manufacturing process is relatively easy. However, one should keep in mind that the productivity and the products quality are directly related to a good knowledge of the material and of the equipment as well as to a rational organisation of the work stations; this is the reason why APPRO-TECHNO offers and strongly advices a complete and professional training (see 2.9.). The technological process can be summed up as follows *: - cement and sand (ratio varying between 1:2 and 1:3) are drymixed into a mortar in a concrete mixer. Organic (15 mm long chopped pieces) or synthetic fibres are then added (so called Fibre Concrete Roofing tiles or F.C.R.). If, for one or another reason, it is not possible or preferable to use vegetal or synthetic fibres, they can be replaced by aggregates (granulometry not bigger than 2/3 of the final roofing tile thickness). In that case, the final product is referred to as Micro Concrete Roofing tile (M.C.R.). - the mortar is then laid on a plastic interface (already on the vibrating table) inside the screeding frame thanks to a mortar scoop. The mortar should be vibrated 45 seconds. The quality and duration of the vibration play an essential part in the quality of the final product (for instance, too long a vibration prevents the distribution of the various elements from being homogeneous, since the heavier elements tend to sink). The nib is also moulded during that time. - the vibrated mortar is then gently transferred onto a support, which will give its final shape to the tile. - at this level, the galvanized iron loop is inserted into the nib (to fix the tile on the roof). - the tile should then remain on the support for 24 hours for shaping and drying and be covered with a plastic sheet to avoid cracks. The tiles are then put in a curing tank for 5 days (the humidity rate being 100 %) and stocked 15/20 days in a shed for final curing. From then on, they can be used or sold. * a thorough description can also be found in the book by G. Brys, Tuiles en Fibro mortier, proc de production et pose en toiture, Gen, B.I.T., 1988. 1.2. Advantages. FCR/MCR have many advantages which often make them the ideal solution as far as the roofing issue is concerned in developping countries. These advantages can be identified on severals levels: Qualities of the roofing material as such: For the man in street, one of the essential things in every day's life is to have an irreproachable weatherproof roofing material above his head. In this respect, FCR/MCR meet this expectation. But, once again, as for any industrial product, a strict, permanent and intransigent quality control has to be set up. The first function of a roof is to protect its inhabitants from outside elements such as rain and sun. As far as rain is concerned, FCR/MCR are perfectly waterproof. Moreover, their accoustic insulating qualities are such that no comparison can be made between a FCR/MCR roof and a roof covered with galvanized iron sheets when it rains. Furthermore, it has been possible to verify the excellent resistance of the FCR/MCR roofs to violent winds in comparison to galvanized iron sheets on the occasion of the Hugo hurricane in 1989: most FCR/MCR roofs have not been affected by the hurricane whereas most other roofs have been blown away. In some risky areas, it is even advisable to use hurricane tiles (with a double fixing device) or thicker tiles (10 mm). As far as thermic insulation is concerned, they can simply not be compared with galvanized iron sheets, which actually heat houses rather than cool them. This advantage is decisive in areas where coolness is so much looked for and so expensive. Their mechanical resistance and resistance to shocks are also worth mentioning (a 8 mm tile should resist to a hanging weight of 50 kg). This is important since many galvanized iron sheets roofs are damaged by stones or fruits. Their life expectancy can be estimated to 15 years at least, which makes their purchase by the final customer very profitable. Last but not least, a look at the front cover picture will convince you of the esthetic qualities of this roofing material (available in various colours). Economic advantages: Beside the quality of the covering material itself, the price at which it can be produced or sold plays an essential part. This price logically varries according to local conditions (raw material, workforce, competitors,...) but, generally speaking, it can be claimed without much risk of error that the cost price of a FCR/MCR roof is cheaper than for other types of roofing (e.g. galvanized iron sheets or fired roofing tiles). It is important to make this comparison in terms of roof and not of product (i.e. tiles). It is obvious that the roof substructure is different for FCR/MCR and for galvanized iron sheets. For instance, the substructure for FCR/MCR roofing is much lighter (1 m2 = 26,6 kg) and consequently cheaper than for fired tiles roofing. Many casestudies have shown that 30 to 60 % of the cost price of a roof can be saved with a FCR/MCR roofing in comparison with other types of roofing. In one word, the biggest trump of FCR/MCR is its cost price. On a macroeconomic level, it is worth noting some advantages likely to encourage the dissimination of this technology and the official support of the local authorities. First of all, the type of industrial unit that is proposed (see 2.5.) allows to some extend a decentralisation of the industry of building materials. On its scale of course, it enables the authorities to struggle against the process of rural exodus and wild urbanization which affect most developping countries by using local workforce in several production units situated in rural or peri-urban areas. Beside the creation of jobs in different areas, the part of value added locally is much more important than for imported materials. Little initial investment and little energy input in production being required, FCR/MCR also means substential savings in terms of foreign exchange. Several studies have shown (e.g. in Kenya*) that the part of foreign exchange used for FCR/MCR is by far lower than for galvanized iron sheet: - 66 to 75 % of the cost price of the galvanized iron sheets.- 17 % of the cost price of FCR/MCR. * P. Coughlin: Steel vs tile roofing. What's appropriate for Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, Economic Department, University of Nairobi, 1985. Environemental advantages: the main advantage on this level is that, little energy input being required, no firewood (fired roofing tiles) or other combustible (as for the manufacture of iron sheets) will be necessary. This may be a major asset in the struggle against desertification. Technological simplicity: A last major advantage is the technological simplicity of the production process of FCR/MCR. As a matter of fact, building and running a kiln (even a simple one) is not very easy. Manufacturing galvanized iron sheet requires a heavy industry. Producing FCR/MCR is relatively simple. But one must keep in mind that the production of good quality FCR/MCR can only be reached by respecting all the production parameters very carefully. This is the reason why we insist (see also 2.9.) very much on a professional training. 2. Description of the TEGULAMATIC unit. 2.1. Brief description of the double vibrating table. Thanks to its robustness and its conception, the TEGULAMATIC can conply with an intensive use by unskilled workforce. The frame of the table consists of sectional steel sheets which give the necessary robustness for ideal vibration. The basic vibrator is made in one piece and has the following characteristics: 3000 r/m, 0,095 kw, 220 V monophase. 220/380 V triphase, 50/60 Herz (tropicalization also on request), 24 or 12 V in continuous and alternating current are also available on request. This is very important since the quality of the final product greatly depends on the ratio quality of vibration / time of vibration. This type of vibration makes it also possible to produce vibrated concrete tiles. Its output capacity can reach 700 tiles/day; it depends on the quantity of double supports available. 2.2. Simplification of the work. The conception of the vibrating table is such that the operator's work is simplified to a maximum: in this way, he can exclusively concentrate on the quality of the final product thanks to the following devices: 1) Placing to the operator's disposal of: - the 200 micron plastic interface sheet- the rubber mortar box (52 x 32 x 22 cm)- the metallic screeding trowel. 2) 2 adjustable and retractable stringers allowing a soft gliding of whatever type of tile on its support. 3) The sectional sheet of the vibrating surface allows a simultaneous blocking of the frame in 3 different places by a simple pressure by the operator's foot or hand (double control). 4) Each blocking point is individually adjustable, which avoids the use of a waterproofness joint between the frame and the vibrating table. 5) The change of frame (to manufacture other types of tiles) is facilitated by the use of 3 standardized hinges. 6) An automatic opening system of the frame enables the operator to hold the 2 nibs with his thumbs. 7) The vibrator is also controlled by a pedal on the same axis as the pedal used for the blocking of the frame. 8) The level of the table can be adjusted by 4 bolts; checking is permanent thanks to 2 water-gauges fixed on visible places. 2.3. Basic equipment accompanying each Tegulamatic unit. - 1 Frame for 2 overlapping pantiles 490 x 235 (12,5 tiles/m2) - 1 Frame for 1 overlapping under-ridge (same dimensions)for 1 overlapping edgetiles (same dimensions) - 1 Frame for two 490 mm long ridges (overlapping: 70 to 80 mm) - 1 Concrete-mixer (140 I) - 1 Roll of 300 mm wide and 200 micron thick plastic sheet to be locally cut into 1000 interface sheets (500 mm long) - 1 Mortar scoop for 8 mm pantiles (1 scoop = 1 tile) - 1 Mortar box 52 x 32 x 22 cm (30 I) - 1 metallic screeding trowel - 1 balance (4 kgs) - 1 ten liter (graduated) rubber bucket - 1 hand-drill for the twisting of the loop - 1 quality control material (resistence to shocks) - 1 quality control material (resistence to flexion) - 1 sample of synthetic fibres - 1 sample of red colourant 2.4. Double supports These galvanized steel double supports are 8 mm thick. This provides a better solidity and a longer life expectancy to the supports, which are, eventually, the most expensive part of the production unit. Moreover, the fact that the supports are made out of galvanized steel allows the operator to clean them in an easier way and to remove the cement sticking to their surface than if they were made out of plastic. They are 1080 mm long so that 2 tiles can be laid on each support. 1 complete double support for pantiles weights 4,03 kg (not packed); 1 complete double support for ridges weights 4,8 kgs (not packed). 2 galvanized steel lateral distance-pieces provided with each support are screwed and allow to stack the supports with 40 mm space between each support. Due to the cost of the supports, we offer 7 types of TEGULAMATIC units AP, as detained in the following table. For an optimal use of the vibrating table and for a double pitch roof, we advice the following: - 375 supports for 650 pantiles- 25 supports for 50 ridges This quantity enables the operator to start the day with a reserve of 50 supports (not used the day before). 2.5. 7 types of unit Type Qty sup. pantiles Qty sup. ridges Daily production M2 / roof daily AP 100 95 5 190 tuiles 15m2 AP 150 145 5 290 tuiles 23m2 AP 200 190 10 380 tuiles 30m2 AP 250 235 15 470 tuiles 37m2 AP 300 280 20 560 tuiles 44m2 AP 350 325 25 650 tuiles 52m2 AP 400 375 25 700 tuiles 56m2 2.6. Raw material for one month production (25 days/690 tiles) for the production of 17 250 tiles (8 mm). - 22,5 m3 sand - 9,375 T. cement - 187,5 kg sisal or 18,75 kg synthetic fibre - 281,250 kg colourant - 9 kg galvanized wire (1 mm) It should be noted that fibre can be replaced by aggregates (max. 6 mm);the quantity is determined by the type of aggregate. - 4 874 l water 2.7. 30 daily mixing operations for 690 tiles in a 140 l concrete-mixer (real capacity = 110 L) (1 mix = 23 tiles (8 mm)) - 30 liters sand = 3 buckets of 10 liters- 10 liters cement = 1 buckets of 10 liters- 250 gr sisal (natural fibre) or 25 gr synthetic fibre (for aggregate see ratio density/volume)- 375 gr of colourant- 6,5 l water 2.8. Cost price of 1 tile or 1 m2 of roof. On your request, we can provide with you with a complete feasibility study free of charge for financing purposes. Therefore, on your request, we can send you a questionary enabling us to calculate the cost price of 1 m2 of roof according to local parameters; the reliability of your study will mainly depend on the correctness of your answers. The above-mentioned quantities will already give you a rough idea for the comparison with the existing materials in your area. Moreover, we remind you that 12,5 tiles are necessary to cover 1 m2 of roof, which means a lighter framework (26,6 kg (8 mm tiles)/m2). 2.9. Training. Training (be it from APPRO-TECHNO or from a training center known for the quality of its transfer of technology) is essential and can be considered as an investment at the same level as equipment. The optimal production of good quality FCR/MCR and the correct dissimination of the technology are greatly bound to a theoretical but also practical training (technology and management). This is the reason why APPRO-TECHNO offers a training on the site or in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). For further information on this subject, please contact us. 2.10. Packing details. AP 100: 1.225 kg (total gross weight) 3,53 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 300 kg / GW 450 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,60 m., NW 680 kg / GW 750 kg AP 150: 1.625 kg (total gross weight) 3,82 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 360 kg / GW 475 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,80 m., NW 1.000 kg / GW 1.150 kg AP 200: 2.050 kg (total gross weight) 4,03 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 475 kg / GW 600 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,95 m., NW 1.300 kg / GW 1.450 kg AP 250: 2.430 kg (total gross weight) 4,28 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 450 kg / GW 600 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,12 m., NW 1.720 kg / GW 1.830 kg AP 300: 2.810 kg (total gross weight) 4,57 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 450 kg / GW 600 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,32 m., NW 2.100 kg/GW 2.210 kg AP 350: 3.075 kg (total gross weight) 5,57 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 550 kg / GW 690 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 2,02 m., NW 2.200 kg / GW 2.385 kg AP 400: 3.345 kg (total gross weight) 4,83 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 1.205 kg / GW 1.365 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,50 m., NW 1.780 kg / GW 1.980 kg TEXTE FRANIS 1.1. Qu'est-ce que la tuile en fibro-mortier ou en micro-mortier ? La tuile en fibro-mortier est un matau de couverture dont les qualitd'isolation (thermique et accoustique), la durabilitt la rstance mnique et aux impacts sont remarquables; ces caractstiques li aux aspects micro et macro-nomiques des mataux de construction localement productibles rendent ce type de couverture particuliment adaptaux ritdes pays en voie de dloppement. Les matis premis utilis sont du sable de granulomie moyenne (granulomie de 0,06 mm homog), du ciment Portland CPA 45 ou CPA 35 (ou ivalent), des fibres vtales (ou des graveleux lattiques) ou ntuellement du colorant. Les tuiles peuvent e produites en isseur de 8 ou 10 mm. Nous dnseillons fortement la fabrication de tuiles de 6 mm d'isseur vu les probls de fragilitmise en uvre et mauvaise tenue aux vents violents. L'nomie risau niveau des matis premis est donc une fausse nomie. Le processus technologique de fabrication est relativement simple (et certainement adapta main d'oeuvre locale). Toutefois, il faut bien garder 'esprit organisation rationnelle de tous les postes de travail. C'est la raison pour laquelle APPRO-TECHNO propose et conseille vivement une formation (voir 2.9.). Le processus technologique peut se rmer comme suit: - un mortier de ciment-sable (ratio variant de 1:2 :3) est prrans un mngeur. On y ajoute ensuite les fibres vtales tronn au prable en morceau de 15 mm ou synthques (appele fibro-mortier). Si pour une raison ou une autre, il n'est pas possible ou prrable d'utiliser des fibres, on peut les remplacer par du graveleux lattique (dont la granulomie ne dsse pas 2/3 de l'isseur du produit final) appele micro-mortier). - Le mortier est ensuite ds l'aide d'une pelle doseuse sur un interface en plastique posur la table vibrante, 'inteur du cadre de vibration. Le mortier doit e vibrendant environ 45 secondes. La qualitt la durde vibration jouent un rtrimportant dans la qualitu produit final (par exemple, une vibration trop longue rend la rrtition des diffnts ments peu homog car les ments plus lourds ont tendance edescendre). On moule lement pendant ce temps le talon d'accrochage. - ensuite, le mortier vibrst transf en douceur sur un support de mise en forme qui a la m forme que la tuile finale. - e stade, on noie un fil de fer galvanisans le talon de la tuile (pour l'accrochage a charpente). - ensuite, on laisse la tuile sur un support pendant 24 heures pour la mise en forme et le sage; elle doit e recouverte d'un plastique pour ter les fissures. - Le lendemain, les tuiles de la veille sont retir dcatement de leurs supports et sont vur avec un couteau. Les tuiles sont ensuite mises urer pendant 5 jours en milieu humide (100% d'humiditet 15 0 jours sous abri. A partir de ce moment, elles peuvent e mises en uvre ou vendues. 1.2. Avantages. La tuile fibro ou micro-mortier prnte de nombreux avantages qui en font dans de nombreux cas la solution ide au probl de la couverture dans les pays en voie de dloppement. Ces avantages se situent lusieurs niveaux. Qualitdu matau en tant que tel. L'avantage le plus important au niveau de la vie quotidienne est de pouvoir disposer d'un matau de couverture d'une qualitrrochable. A cet rd, plusieurs aspects peuvent e souligntout en gardant bien 'esprit que comme pour tout produit industriel un contrde qualittrict, permanent et intransigeant doit e mis en place. La fonction premi d'une toiture est de protr les habitants contre des ments exteurs tels que la pluie et le soleil. A ce propos, les tuiles fibro ou micro-mortier offrent dans le premier cas (la pluie) une protection absolue puisqu'elles sont parfaitement impermles. De plus, leurs qualitd'isolation accoustique les rendent incomparables par rapport aux t lorsqu'il pleut. Par ailleurs, le cyclone Hugo de 1989 dans les Antilles a permis de vfier la bonne tenue des toitures en fibro-mortier aux vents violents par rapport aux t ondul. De plus, dans les zones isques, il est possible et m recommand'utiliser des tuiles ouragan ouble accrochage ou des tuiles plus isses (10 mm). De plus, leur isolation thermique est incomparable par rapport a tondultraditionnelle qui rauffe plutu'elle ne rafrait les maisons dans des pays ofraeur des maisons constitue l'aspiration de chacun malgron coev Ensuite, la tuile fibro-mortier a une excellente rstance mnique (une tuile de ce type d'une isseur de 8 mm doit pouvoir rster au minimum ne charge suspendue de 50 kg) et surtout une trbonne rstance aux impacts. Lr exemple, les impacts de pierres ou de fruits abnt les t ondul de fa irrdiable, les tuiles fibro-mortier font preuve d'une excellente rstance e genre de choc. Leur espnce de vie est d'au moins quinze ans, ce qui rend leur achat trrentable pour le client final. Enfin, elles redonnent naissance n style traditionnel disparu au profit d'un non-style. Un simple coup d'il aux photos vous en convaincra. De plus, la tuile est risable en plusieurs couleurs. Avantages d'ordre nomique. Outre la qualitu matau de couverture lui-m, le prix auquel il peut e produit ou vendu joue un ressentiel. Il est certain que ces prix sont en fonction des conditions locales (prix des matis premis, de la main d'oeuvre, concurence, etc...) mais, de fa grale, on peut affirmer que le prix de revient des toitures en tuiles fibro ou micro-mortier est nettement moins vue celui des autres types de couverture (t galvanis et tuiles en terre cuite pour ne citer que les principales). Nous parlons bien ici de toiture. En effet, il ne faut pas se limiter au seul produit (la tuile) mais bien s'ndre a toiture dans sa globalitSans entrer dans les dils, il est dent que les tuiles en terre cuite (trlourdes), les tuiles en fibro-mortier ou les t galvanis ne requint pas le m type de charpente. A titre d'exemple, les tuiles en fibro-mortier demandent une toiture beaucoup plus lre et donc beaucoup moins coe que la terre cuite (les tuiles en fibro-mortier de 8 mm d'isseur ne pnt que 26,6 kg/m2). De nombreuses des ont montrue l'nomie risgr ne couverture en fibro ou micro-mortier va de 30 0 % par rapport aux autres variantes (terre cuite, tgalvanis. Il faut donc reconnae que, la tuile fibro-mortier a un rme atout pour elle: son prix ! Au niveau macro-nomique, les avantages sont considbles pour les pays en vole de dloppement. Ceci devrait encourager la dissimination de la technologie et l'aide officielle des autoritlocales. En premier lieu, le petit type d'unitndustrielle (voir 2.5.) propos(qui sont par ailleurs modulables en fonction du nombre de supports) permet une certaine dntralisation de l'industrie. Elle permet, on elle bien entendu, d'enrayer le processus d'exode rural et d'urbanisation galoppante qui frappe de fa cruelle la plupart des pays en voie de dloppement en employant la main d'oeuvre en de nombreux points de production (zone urbaine, zone p-urbaine et zone rurale). A cde cette crion d'emploi, aspect non-nigeable, une plus value locale relativement (certainement par rapport aux mataux import importante est cr. Ensuite, la dndance par rapport aux devises est nettement moins importante que dans le cas de t import vu l'investissement de drt rit et l'emploi restreint d'rgie. A ce propos, plusieurs des ont montrnotamment au Kenya *) que la part des devises utilispour les t ondul: - 66 5 % du prix de vente de la tondul- 17% du prix de vente des tuiles fibro-mortier. * P. Coughlin: Steel vs tile roofing, What's appropriate for Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, Economic Department, University of Nairobi, 1985. Avantages pour l'environnement: A ce niveau, le principal avantage est constituar l'emploi restreint d'rgie: ni le bois de chauffe (tuiles cuites), ni quelqu'autre combustible n'est nssaire. Ceci constitue certainement un argument de poids dans la lutte actuelle contre la drtification. Simplicitechnologique Un dernier avantage important dont nous avons d touchn mot est la simplicitechnologique du processus de production de tuiles fibro-mortier En effet, construire un four (m relativement simple) et le faire fonctionner correctement n'est pas simple. Fabriquer des t ondul nssite une industrie lourde. Produire des tuiles fibro-mortier est relativement simple. Encore faut-il qu'elles soient de bonne qualitSeul le respect de tous les parames de fabrication garantit cette qualitC'est la raison pour laquelle, nous tenons nsister qu'une formation professionnelle (voir lement 2.9.) est souvent souhaitable. 2. Description de l'unitEGULAMATIC. 2.1. Description sommaire de la table vibrante double. Sa robustesse et sa conception lui permettent de rndre n usage intensif et ne utilisation par une main d'uvre peu qualifi Le b de la table est constitue t profil qui lui confnt la robustesse nssaire pour une vibration ide. Le vibrateur de base est de conception monobloc - 3000 T/M - 0,095 KW/ 220 V MONO. Sur demande 220/380 V triphas50 ou 60 podes (la protection tropicalispeut e obtenue sur demande) ou 24 V et 12 V en courant continu et alternatif peuvent e obtenus. Cet ment est extrment important puisque la qualitu produit final dnd en bonne partie du rapport qualite la vibration / temps de vibration. Le type de vibration permet de riser lement des tuiles en bn vibrsans sisal). Sa capacite production peut aller jusqu'00 tuiles/jour; elle dnd du nombre de supports doubles disponibles. 2.2. Simplification des options. Sa conception est telle que le travail de l'opteur est simplifiu maximum; il peut ainsi se concentrer uniquement sur la qualitu produit final notamment gr aux diffnts dils repris ci-dessous: 1) Mise isposition ortde main de l'opteur de: - La feuille de PVC appelinterface de 200 MICRONS.- Un bac ortier en caoutchouc de 52 X 32 X 22 cm (30 L)- Un emplacement pour la taloche mllique. 2) 2 longerons rables en hauteur et ractables permettant un glissement en douceur de la tuile quel que soit le mod. 3) Le profil de la surface vibrante permet un blocage du cadre de la tuile rois endroits simultanpar une simple manuvre commandau pied ou a main (commande double). 4) Chaque point de blocage est rable individuellement, ce qui te l'emploi d'un joint d'nchntre le cadre et la surface vibrante de la table. 5) La permutation des cadres permettant de riser les diffntes tuiles se fait facilement par l'emploi de 3 charnis normalis. 6) Un syst automatique d'ouverture du cadre permet 'opteur de maintenir avec les 2 pouces les talons des 2 tuiles. 7) La commande du vibrateur se fait lement par une ple au pied montsur le m axe que le blocage du cadre. 8) Le niveau de la table est assurar 4 boulons et le contrest permanent gr niveaux fixes endroits visuels, 2.3. Equipement de base. Avec chaque table vibrante double, nous fournissons: - 1 cadre pour 2 tuiles ecouvrement de 490 X 235 M/M -12,5 tuiles/m2. - 1 cadre pour 1 tuile ecouvrement sous faiti (ms dimensions). - 1 cadre pour 1 tuile ecouvrement de rive (ms dimensions). - 1 cadre pour 2 tuiles faitis de 490 M/M (recouvrement de 70 0). - 1 bnni de 140 L, - 1 rouleau de PVC de 300 MM de largeur appelnterface de 200 microns uper localement en 1000 feuilles de 500 MM de long. - 1 pelle doseuse pour tuile 8 M/M (1 pelle = 1 tuile). - 1 bac ortier de 52 X 32 X 22 cm (30 litres). - 1 taloche mllique. - 1 balance 4 kgs (750 gr de colorant et 500 gr de sisal pour 46 tuiles de 8 m/m). - 1 seau de 10 L gradun caoutchouc. - 1 drille pour le torsadage du fil de fer. - Matel de contrde qualites tuiles (rstance aux chocs). - Matel de contrde qualites tuiles (rstance a flexion). - 1 antillon de fibre synthque. - 1 antillon de colorant rouge. 2.4. Supports doubles de mise en forme de sage. Ces supports doubles en acier galvanisnt 0,8 M d'isseur. Ceci permet d'assurer une soliditt une espnce de vie beaucoup plus longue des supports (qui constituent en fin de compte une des parties les plus onuses de toute unite production de tuiles fibro-mortier). De plus, le fait que la mati premi soit de l'acier galvanisermet de nettoyer les supports plus facilement que ceux con en plastique et d'miner notamment tout rdu de ciment qui viendrait s'y coller. Les supports doubles ont une longueur de 1080 M/M afin de dser facilement 2 tuiles sur un seul support. 1 support double complet pour tuile ecouvrement p 4,03 kg (non emball 1 support double complet pour tuile faiti p 4,8 kg (non emball Les 2 entretoises latles en acier galvanisournies avec le support sont boulonn et permettent d'obtenir un empilage parfait en laissant 40 M/M d'espace pour les 2 tuiles. Vu le co ces supports, nous offrons 7 propositions type AP dill dans le tableau suivant. Pour une utilisation optimale de la table vibrante et de la demande normale pour un toit eux versants, nous conseillons la formule suivante: - 375 supports pour le sage de 650 tuiles ecouvrement.- 25 supports pour le sage de 50 tuiles faitis. Cette quantite supports permet de drrer la journde travail avec une rrve de 50 supports non utilisla veille. 2.5.7 TYPES D'UNIT Type Qty recouvrement Qty Faitis Production / jour M2 / jour AP 100 95 5 190 tuiles 15m2 AP 150 145 5 290 tuiles 23m2 AP 200 190 10 380 tuiles 30m2 AP 250 235 15 470 tuiles 37m2 AP 300 280 20 560 tuiles 44m2 AP 350 325 25 650 tuiles 52m2 AP 400 375 25 700 tuiles 56m2 2.6. Mati premi rir mensuellement (25 jours 90 tuiles) pour la production de 17.250 tuiles de 8 mm. - 22,5 m3 de sable - 9,375 T de ciment - 187,5 kg de fibre de sisal ou 18,75 kg de fibre synthque - 281,250 kg de colorant - 9 kg de fil de fer galvanise 1 mm Il est oter que la fibre peut e remplacpar du graveleux latque de 6 mm maximum (quantit drminer en fonction du type de graveleux). - 4.874 l d'eau 2.7. 30 mnges rir par journ de 690 tuiles dans un mngeur de 140 litres (capacite 110 litres) 1 mnge = 23 tuiles de 8 mm d'isseur. - 30 litres de sable = 3 seaux de 10 litres - 10 litres de ciment = 1 seau de 10 litres - 250 gr de fibre de sisal ou 25 gr de fibermesh (pour le graveleux, cfr le parame rapport densitolume) - 375 gr de colorant - 6,5 l d'eau 2.8. Calcul du prix de revient de la tuile ou du m2 de toiture. A votre demande, nous pouvons vous riser gratuitement l'de de faisabilitancaire. Un questionnaire nous permettant d'blir le prix de revient du m2 de toiture en fonction des parames locaux vous sera envoy votre simple demande; la fiabilite notre de dndra essentiellement de l'exactitude de vos rnses. Les quantitdes matis premis reprises ci-dessus vous permettent d de comparer avec les mataux existants dans votre ron. De plus nous vous rappelons qu'il faut 12,5 tuiles au m2 ce qui reprnte un poids de 26,6 kg par m2 pour de la tuile de 8 mm d'isseur et donc une charpente plus lre. 2.9. Formation. Prir une formation (qu'elle soit d'APPRO-TECHNO ou de tout autre institut de formation reconnu pour la qualite son transfert de technologie) est trimportant et peut e consid comme un investissement au m titre que le matel. La fabrication optimale de tuiles fibro-mortier de qualitt la rsite de la dissnation de la technologie sont largement li ne formation thique et surtout pratique (technologie et gestion). C'est pour ces raisons qu'APPRO-TECHNO propose une formation soit sur le site soit bidjan (Cd'Ivoire). Pour plus de renseignements e sujet, veuillez nous contacter. 2.10 Dils du collissage. AP 100: 1.225 kg (poids brut total) 3,53 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 300 kg / PB 450 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,60 m., PN 680 kg / PB 750 kg AP 150: 1.625 kg (poids brut total) 3,82 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 360 kg / PB 475 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,80 m., PN 1.000 kg / PB 1.150 kg AP 200: 2.050 kg (poids brut total) 4,03 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 475 kg / PB 600 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,95 m., PN 1.300 kg / PB 1.450 kg AP 250: 2.430 kg (poids brut total) 4,28 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 450 kg / PB 600 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,12 m., PN 1.720 kg / PB 1.830 kg AP 300: 2.810 kg (poids brut total) 4,57 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 450 kg / PB 600 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,32 m., PN 2.100 kg/ PB 2.210 kg AP 350: 3.075 kg (poids brut total) 5,57 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 550 kg / PB 690 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 2,02 m., PN 2.200 kg / PB 2.385 kg AP 400: 3.345 kg (poids brut total) 4,83 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 1.205 kg / PB 1.365 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,50 m., PN 1.780 kg / PB 1.980 kg DEALER:

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Indeed, while lump charcoal and briquettes both originate as scrap lumber, the uniform round shape of the briquette is a result of an industrial process that depends on other materials, too. (Kingsford, the biggest maker of charcoal in the U.S., is a little vague about what exactly is in its briquettes, but its website mentions coal, limestone, borax and cornstarch.)

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4. Ouverture automatique du cadre Automatic opening of the frame. 5. Mise en forme avec l'interface sur le support double. Giving the final shape with the interface on to the double support. 6. Empilage des supports pour la premi cure de 24 heures. Stacking of the supports for the first 24 hour cure. 7. Dulage de la tuile et vurage Demoulding of the rite and removal of the excess flashes. 8. Bassins de cure (5 jours). Curing tanks (5 to 6 days). 1.1. What are fibro concrete roofing tiles or micro concrete roofing tiles ? Fibre concrete or micro concrete roofing tiles are an excellent covering material with very high insulating (thermal and accoustic) qualities; their durability and resistance are also worth mentioning especially in comparison with galvanized roofing sheets. These qualities, together with other macro and micro economic aspects of the so called locally productible building materials make this type of roofing particularly appropriate to the realities of developping countries. The raw materials consist of sand (average granulometry or well graded i.e. 0,06 to 0,2 mm), Portland Cement (CPA 35), organic or synthetic fibres (or aggregates) and possibly colourants (chemical pigments). The tiles can be 8 or 10 mm tiles. We strongly advice against the production of 6 mm thick thiles due to their brittleness, bad resistence to violent winds (hurricanes) and to the problems encountered during their implementation. The money saved in terms of raw material does not compensate these disadvantages. The manufacturing process is relatively easy. However, one should keep in mind that the productivity and the products quality are directly related to a good knowledge of the material and of the equipment as well as to a rational organisation of the work stations; this is the reason why APPRO-TECHNO offers and strongly advices a complete and professional training (see 2.9.). The technological process can be summed up as follows *: - cement and sand (ratio varying between 1:2 and 1:3) are drymixed into a mortar in a concrete mixer. Organic (15 mm long chopped pieces) or synthetic fibres are then added (so called Fibre Concrete Roofing tiles or F.C.R.). If, for one or another reason, it is not possible or preferable to use vegetal or synthetic fibres, they can be replaced by aggregates (granulometry not bigger than 2/3 of the final roofing tile thickness). In that case, the final product is referred to as Micro Concrete Roofing tile (M.C.R.). - the mortar is then laid on a plastic interface (already on the vibrating table) inside the screeding frame thanks to a mortar scoop. The mortar should be vibrated 45 seconds. The quality and duration of the vibration play an essential part in the quality of the final product (for instance, too long a vibration prevents the distribution of the various elements from being homogeneous, since the heavier elements tend to sink). The nib is also moulded during that time. - the vibrated mortar is then gently transferred onto a support, which will give its final shape to the tile. - at this level, the galvanized iron loop is inserted into the nib (to fix the tile on the roof). - the tile should then remain on the support for 24 hours for shaping and drying and be covered with a plastic sheet to avoid cracks. The tiles are then put in a curing tank for 5 days (the humidity rate being 100 %) and stocked 15/20 days in a shed for final curing. From then on, they can be used or sold. * a thorough description can also be found in the book by G. Brys, Tuiles en Fibro mortier, proc de production et pose en toiture, Gen, B.I.T., 1988. 1.2. Advantages. FCR/MCR have many advantages which often make them the ideal solution as far as the roofing issue is concerned in developping countries. These advantages can be identified on severals levels: Qualities of the roofing material as such: For the man in street, one of the essential things in every day's life is to have an irreproachable weatherproof roofing material above his head. In this respect, FCR/MCR meet this expectation. But, once again, as for any industrial product, a strict, permanent and intransigent quality control has to be set up. The first function of a roof is to protect its inhabitants from outside elements such as rain and sun. As far as rain is concerned, FCR/MCR are perfectly waterproof. Moreover, their accoustic insulating qualities are such that no comparison can be made between a FCR/MCR roof and a roof covered with galvanized iron sheets when it rains. Furthermore, it has been possible to verify the excellent resistance of the FCR/MCR roofs to violent winds in comparison to galvanized iron sheets on the occasion of the Hugo hurricane in 1989: most FCR/MCR roofs have not been affected by the hurricane whereas most other roofs have been blown away. In some risky areas, it is even advisable to use hurricane tiles (with a double fixing device) or thicker tiles (10 mm). As far as thermic insulation is concerned, they can simply not be compared with galvanized iron sheets, which actually heat houses rather than cool them. This advantage is decisive in areas where coolness is so much looked for and so expensive. Their mechanical resistance and resistance to shocks are also worth mentioning (a 8 mm tile should resist to a hanging weight of 50 kg). This is important since many galvanized iron sheets roofs are damaged by stones or fruits. Their life expectancy can be estimated to 15 years at least, which makes their purchase by the final customer very profitable. Last but not least, a look at the front cover picture will convince you of the esthetic qualities of this roofing material (available in various colours). Economic advantages: Beside the quality of the covering material itself, the price at which it can be produced or sold plays an essential part. This price logically varries according to local conditions (raw material, workforce, competitors,...) but, generally speaking, it can be claimed without much risk of error that the cost price of a FCR/MCR roof is cheaper than for other types of roofing (e.g. galvanized iron sheets or fired roofing tiles). It is important to make this comparison in terms of roof and not of product (i.e. tiles). It is obvious that the roof substructure is different for FCR/MCR and for galvanized iron sheets. For instance, the substructure for FCR/MCR roofing is much lighter (1 m2 = 26,6 kg) and consequently cheaper than for fired tiles roofing. Many casestudies have shown that 30 to 60 % of the cost price of a roof can be saved with a FCR/MCR roofing in comparison with other types of roofing. In one word, the biggest trump of FCR/MCR is its cost price. On a macroeconomic level, it is worth noting some advantages likely to encourage the dissimination of this technology and the official support of the local authorities. First of all, the type of industrial unit that is proposed (see 2.5.) allows to some extend a decentralisation of the industry of building materials. On its scale of course, it enables the authorities to struggle against the process of rural exodus and wild urbanization which affect most developping countries by using local workforce in several production units situated in rural or peri-urban areas. Beside the creation of jobs in different areas, the part of value added locally is much more important than for imported materials. Little initial investment and little energy input in production being required, FCR/MCR also means substential savings in terms of foreign exchange. Several studies have shown (e.g. in Kenya*) that the part of foreign exchange used for FCR/MCR is by far lower than for galvanized iron sheet: - 66 to 75 % of the cost price of the galvanized iron sheets.- 17 % of the cost price of FCR/MCR. * P. Coughlin: Steel vs tile roofing. What's appropriate for Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, Economic Department, University of Nairobi, 1985. Environemental advantages: the main advantage on this level is that, little energy input being required, no firewood (fired roofing tiles) or other combustible (as for the manufacture of iron sheets) will be necessary. This may be a major asset in the struggle against desertification. Technological simplicity: A last major advantage is the technological simplicity of the production process of FCR/MCR. As a matter of fact, building and running a kiln (even a simple one) is not very easy. Manufacturing galvanized iron sheet requires a heavy industry. Producing FCR/MCR is relatively simple. But one must keep in mind that the production of good quality FCR/MCR can only be reached by respecting all the production parameters very carefully. This is the reason why we insist (see also 2.9.) very much on a professional training. 2. Description of the TEGULAMATIC unit. 2.1. Brief description of the double vibrating table. Thanks to its robustness and its conception, the TEGULAMATIC can conply with an intensive use by unskilled workforce. The frame of the table consists of sectional steel sheets which give the necessary robustness for ideal vibration. The basic vibrator is made in one piece and has the following characteristics: 3000 r/m, 0,095 kw, 220 V monophase. 220/380 V triphase, 50/60 Herz (tropicalization also on request), 24 or 12 V in continuous and alternating current are also available on request. This is very important since the quality of the final product greatly depends on the ratio quality of vibration / time of vibration. This type of vibration makes it also possible to produce vibrated concrete tiles. Its output capacity can reach 700 tiles/day; it depends on the quantity of double supports available. 2.2. Simplification of the work. The conception of the vibrating table is such that the operator's work is simplified to a maximum: in this way, he can exclusively concentrate on the quality of the final product thanks to the following devices: 1) Placing to the operator's disposal of: - the 200 micron plastic interface sheet- the rubber mortar box (52 x 32 x 22 cm)- the metallic screeding trowel. 2) 2 adjustable and retractable stringers allowing a soft gliding of whatever type of tile on its support. 3) The sectional sheet of the vibrating surface allows a simultaneous blocking of the frame in 3 different places by a simple pressure by the operator's foot or hand (double control). 4) Each blocking point is individually adjustable, which avoids the use of a waterproofness joint between the frame and the vibrating table. 5) The change of frame (to manufacture other types of tiles) is facilitated by the use of 3 standardized hinges. 6) An automatic opening system of the frame enables the operator to hold the 2 nibs with his thumbs. 7) The vibrator is also controlled by a pedal on the same axis as the pedal used for the blocking of the frame. 8) The level of the table can be adjusted by 4 bolts; checking is permanent thanks to 2 water-gauges fixed on visible places. 2.3. Basic equipment accompanying each Tegulamatic unit. - 1 Frame for 2 overlapping pantiles 490 x 235 (12,5 tiles/m2) - 1 Frame for 1 overlapping under-ridge (same dimensions)for 1 overlapping edgetiles (same dimensions) - 1 Frame for two 490 mm long ridges (overlapping: 70 to 80 mm) - 1 Concrete-mixer (140 I) - 1 Roll of 300 mm wide and 200 micron thick plastic sheet to be locally cut into 1000 interface sheets (500 mm long) - 1 Mortar scoop for 8 mm pantiles (1 scoop = 1 tile) - 1 Mortar box 52 x 32 x 22 cm (30 I) - 1 metallic screeding trowel - 1 balance (4 kgs) - 1 ten liter (graduated) rubber bucket - 1 hand-drill for the twisting of the loop - 1 quality control material (resistence to shocks) - 1 quality control material (resistence to flexion) - 1 sample of synthetic fibres - 1 sample of red colourant 2.4. Double supports These galvanized steel double supports are 8 mm thick. This provides a better solidity and a longer life expectancy to the supports, which are, eventually, the most expensive part of the production unit. Moreover, the fact that the supports are made out of galvanized steel allows the operator to clean them in an easier way and to remove the cement sticking to their surface than if they were made out of plastic. They are 1080 mm long so that 2 tiles can be laid on each support. 1 complete double support for pantiles weights 4,03 kg (not packed); 1 complete double support for ridges weights 4,8 kgs (not packed). 2 galvanized steel lateral distance-pieces provided with each support are screwed and allow to stack the supports with 40 mm space between each support. Due to the cost of the supports, we offer 7 types of TEGULAMATIC units AP, as detained in the following table. For an optimal use of the vibrating table and for a double pitch roof, we advice the following: - 375 supports for 650 pantiles- 25 supports for 50 ridges This quantity enables the operator to start the day with a reserve of 50 supports (not used the day before). 2.5. 7 types of unit Type Qty sup. pantiles Qty sup. ridges Daily production M2 / roof daily AP 100 95 5 190 tuiles 15m2 AP 150 145 5 290 tuiles 23m2 AP 200 190 10 380 tuiles 30m2 AP 250 235 15 470 tuiles 37m2 AP 300 280 20 560 tuiles 44m2 AP 350 325 25 650 tuiles 52m2 AP 400 375 25 700 tuiles 56m2 2.6. Raw material for one month production (25 days/690 tiles) for the production of 17 250 tiles (8 mm). - 22,5 m3 sand - 9,375 T. cement - 187,5 kg sisal or 18,75 kg synthetic fibre - 281,250 kg colourant - 9 kg galvanized wire (1 mm) It should be noted that fibre can be replaced by aggregates (max. 6 mm);the quantity is determined by the type of aggregate. - 4 874 l water 2.7. 30 daily mixing operations for 690 tiles in a 140 l concrete-mixer (real capacity = 110 L) (1 mix = 23 tiles (8 mm)) - 30 liters sand = 3 buckets of 10 liters- 10 liters cement = 1 buckets of 10 liters- 250 gr sisal (natural fibre) or 25 gr synthetic fibre (for aggregate see ratio density/volume)- 375 gr of colourant- 6,5 l water 2.8. Cost price of 1 tile or 1 m2 of roof. On your request, we can provide with you with a complete feasibility study free of charge for financing purposes. Therefore, on your request, we can send you a questionary enabling us to calculate the cost price of 1 m2 of roof according to local parameters; the reliability of your study will mainly depend on the correctness of your answers. The above-mentioned quantities will already give you a rough idea for the comparison with the existing materials in your area. Moreover, we remind you that 12,5 tiles are necessary to cover 1 m2 of roof, which means a lighter framework (26,6 kg (8 mm tiles)/m2). 2.9. Training. Training (be it from APPRO-TECHNO or from a training center known for the quality of its transfer of technology) is essential and can be considered as an investment at the same level as equipment. The optimal production of good quality FCR/MCR and the correct dissimination of the technology are greatly bound to a theoretical but also practical training (technology and management). This is the reason why APPRO-TECHNO offers a training on the site or in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). For further information on this subject, please contact us. 2.10. Packing details. AP 100: 1.225 kg (total gross weight) 3,53 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 300 kg / GW 450 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,60 m., NW 680 kg / GW 750 kg AP 150: 1.625 kg (total gross weight) 3,82 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 360 kg / GW 475 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,80 m., NW 1.000 kg / GW 1.150 kg AP 200: 2.050 kg (total gross weight) 4,03 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 475 kg / GW 600 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,95 m., NW 1.300 kg / GW 1.450 kg AP 250: 2.430 kg (total gross weight) 4,28 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 450 kg / GW 600 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,12 m., NW 1.720 kg / GW 1.830 kg AP 300: 2.810 kg (total gross weight) 4,57 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 450 kg / GW 600 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,32 m., NW 2.100 kg/GW 2.210 kg AP 350: 3.075 kg (total gross weight) 5,57 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 550 kg / GW 690 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 2,02 m., NW 2.200 kg / GW 2.385 kg AP 400: 3.345 kg (total gross weight) 4,83 m3: - 1 seaworthy case 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, NW 1.205 kg / GW 1.365 kg - 1 reinforced seaworthy case (supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,50 m., NW 1.780 kg / GW 1.980 kg TEXTE FRANIS 1.1. Qu'est-ce que la tuile en fibro-mortier ou en micro-mortier ? La tuile en fibro-mortier est un matau de couverture dont les qualitd'isolation (thermique et accoustique), la durabilitt la rstance mnique et aux impacts sont remarquables; ces caractstiques li aux aspects micro et macro-nomiques des mataux de construction localement productibles rendent ce type de couverture particuliment adaptaux ritdes pays en voie de dloppement. Les matis premis utilis sont du sable de granulomie moyenne (granulomie de 0,06 mm homog), du ciment Portland CPA 45 ou CPA 35 (ou ivalent), des fibres vtales (ou des graveleux lattiques) ou ntuellement du colorant. Les tuiles peuvent e produites en isseur de 8 ou 10 mm. Nous dnseillons fortement la fabrication de tuiles de 6 mm d'isseur vu les probls de fragilitmise en uvre et mauvaise tenue aux vents violents. L'nomie risau niveau des matis premis est donc une fausse nomie. Le processus technologique de fabrication est relativement simple (et certainement adapta main d'oeuvre locale). Toutefois, il faut bien garder 'esprit organisation rationnelle de tous les postes de travail. C'est la raison pour laquelle APPRO-TECHNO propose et conseille vivement une formation (voir 2.9.). Le processus technologique peut se rmer comme suit: - un mortier de ciment-sable (ratio variant de 1:2 :3) est prrans un mngeur. On y ajoute ensuite les fibres vtales tronn au prable en morceau de 15 mm ou synthques (appele fibro-mortier). Si pour une raison ou une autre, il n'est pas possible ou prrable d'utiliser des fibres, on peut les remplacer par du graveleux lattique (dont la granulomie ne dsse pas 2/3 de l'isseur du produit final) appele micro-mortier). - Le mortier est ensuite ds l'aide d'une pelle doseuse sur un interface en plastique posur la table vibrante, 'inteur du cadre de vibration. Le mortier doit e vibrendant environ 45 secondes. La qualitt la durde vibration jouent un rtrimportant dans la qualitu produit final (par exemple, une vibration trop longue rend la rrtition des diffnts ments peu homog car les ments plus lourds ont tendance edescendre). On moule lement pendant ce temps le talon d'accrochage. - ensuite, le mortier vibrst transf en douceur sur un support de mise en forme qui a la m forme que la tuile finale. - e stade, on noie un fil de fer galvanisans le talon de la tuile (pour l'accrochage a charpente). - ensuite, on laisse la tuile sur un support pendant 24 heures pour la mise en forme et le sage; elle doit e recouverte d'un plastique pour ter les fissures. - Le lendemain, les tuiles de la veille sont retir dcatement de leurs supports et sont vur avec un couteau. Les tuiles sont ensuite mises urer pendant 5 jours en milieu humide (100% d'humiditet 15 0 jours sous abri. A partir de ce moment, elles peuvent e mises en uvre ou vendues. 1.2. Avantages. La tuile fibro ou micro-mortier prnte de nombreux avantages qui en font dans de nombreux cas la solution ide au probl de la couverture dans les pays en voie de dloppement. Ces avantages se situent lusieurs niveaux. Qualitdu matau en tant que tel. L'avantage le plus important au niveau de la vie quotidienne est de pouvoir disposer d'un matau de couverture d'une qualitrrochable. A cet rd, plusieurs aspects peuvent e souligntout en gardant bien 'esprit que comme pour tout produit industriel un contrde qualittrict, permanent et intransigeant doit e mis en place. La fonction premi d'une toiture est de protr les habitants contre des ments exteurs tels que la pluie et le soleil. A ce propos, les tuiles fibro ou micro-mortier offrent dans le premier cas (la pluie) une protection absolue puisqu'elles sont parfaitement impermles. De plus, leurs qualitd'isolation accoustique les rendent incomparables par rapport aux t lorsqu'il pleut. Par ailleurs, le cyclone Hugo de 1989 dans les Antilles a permis de vfier la bonne tenue des toitures en fibro-mortier aux vents violents par rapport aux t ondul. De plus, dans les zones isques, il est possible et m recommand'utiliser des tuiles ouragan ouble accrochage ou des tuiles plus isses (10 mm). De plus, leur isolation thermique est incomparable par rapport a tondultraditionnelle qui rauffe plutu'elle ne rafrait les maisons dans des pays ofraeur des maisons constitue l'aspiration de chacun malgron coev Ensuite, la tuile fibro-mortier a une excellente rstance mnique (une tuile de ce type d'une isseur de 8 mm doit pouvoir rster au minimum ne charge suspendue de 50 kg) et surtout une trbonne rstance aux impacts. Lr exemple, les impacts de pierres ou de fruits abnt les t ondul de fa irrdiable, les tuiles fibro-mortier font preuve d'une excellente rstance e genre de choc. Leur espnce de vie est d'au moins quinze ans, ce qui rend leur achat trrentable pour le client final. Enfin, elles redonnent naissance n style traditionnel disparu au profit d'un non-style. Un simple coup d'il aux photos vous en convaincra. De plus, la tuile est risable en plusieurs couleurs. Avantages d'ordre nomique. Outre la qualitu matau de couverture lui-m, le prix auquel il peut e produit ou vendu joue un ressentiel. Il est certain que ces prix sont en fonction des conditions locales (prix des matis premis, de la main d'oeuvre, concurence, etc...) mais, de fa grale, on peut affirmer que le prix de revient des toitures en tuiles fibro ou micro-mortier est nettement moins vue celui des autres types de couverture (t galvanis et tuiles en terre cuite pour ne citer que les principales). Nous parlons bien ici de toiture. En effet, il ne faut pas se limiter au seul produit (la tuile) mais bien s'ndre a toiture dans sa globalitSans entrer dans les dils, il est dent que les tuiles en terre cuite (trlourdes), les tuiles en fibro-mortier ou les t galvanis ne requint pas le m type de charpente. A titre d'exemple, les tuiles en fibro-mortier demandent une toiture beaucoup plus lre et donc beaucoup moins coe que la terre cuite (les tuiles en fibro-mortier de 8 mm d'isseur ne pnt que 26,6 kg/m2). De nombreuses des ont montrue l'nomie risgr ne couverture en fibro ou micro-mortier va de 30 0 % par rapport aux autres variantes (terre cuite, tgalvanis. Il faut donc reconnae que, la tuile fibro-mortier a un rme atout pour elle: son prix ! Au niveau macro-nomique, les avantages sont considbles pour les pays en vole de dloppement. Ceci devrait encourager la dissimination de la technologie et l'aide officielle des autoritlocales. En premier lieu, le petit type d'unitndustrielle (voir 2.5.) propos(qui sont par ailleurs modulables en fonction du nombre de supports) permet une certaine dntralisation de l'industrie. Elle permet, on elle bien entendu, d'enrayer le processus d'exode rural et d'urbanisation galoppante qui frappe de fa cruelle la plupart des pays en voie de dloppement en employant la main d'oeuvre en de nombreux points de production (zone urbaine, zone p-urbaine et zone rurale). A cde cette crion d'emploi, aspect non-nigeable, une plus value locale relativement (certainement par rapport aux mataux import importante est cr. Ensuite, la dndance par rapport aux devises est nettement moins importante que dans le cas de t import vu l'investissement de drt rit et l'emploi restreint d'rgie. A ce propos, plusieurs des ont montrnotamment au Kenya *) que la part des devises utilispour les t ondul: - 66 5 % du prix de vente de la tondul- 17% du prix de vente des tuiles fibro-mortier. * P. Coughlin: Steel vs tile roofing, What's appropriate for Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, Economic Department, University of Nairobi, 1985. Avantages pour l'environnement: A ce niveau, le principal avantage est constituar l'emploi restreint d'rgie: ni le bois de chauffe (tuiles cuites), ni quelqu'autre combustible n'est nssaire. Ceci constitue certainement un argument de poids dans la lutte actuelle contre la drtification. Simplicitechnologique Un dernier avantage important dont nous avons d touchn mot est la simplicitechnologique du processus de production de tuiles fibro-mortier En effet, construire un four (m relativement simple) et le faire fonctionner correctement n'est pas simple. Fabriquer des t ondul nssite une industrie lourde. Produire des tuiles fibro-mortier est relativement simple. Encore faut-il qu'elles soient de bonne qualitSeul le respect de tous les parames de fabrication garantit cette qualitC'est la raison pour laquelle, nous tenons nsister qu'une formation professionnelle (voir lement 2.9.) est souvent souhaitable. 2. Description de l'unitEGULAMATIC. 2.1. Description sommaire de la table vibrante double. Sa robustesse et sa conception lui permettent de rndre n usage intensif et ne utilisation par une main d'uvre peu qualifi Le b de la table est constitue t profil qui lui confnt la robustesse nssaire pour une vibration ide. Le vibrateur de base est de conception monobloc - 3000 T/M - 0,095 KW/ 220 V MONO. Sur demande 220/380 V triphas50 ou 60 podes (la protection tropicalispeut e obtenue sur demande) ou 24 V et 12 V en courant continu et alternatif peuvent e obtenus. Cet ment est extrment important puisque la qualitu produit final dnd en bonne partie du rapport qualite la vibration / temps de vibration. Le type de vibration permet de riser lement des tuiles en bn vibrsans sisal). Sa capacite production peut aller jusqu'00 tuiles/jour; elle dnd du nombre de supports doubles disponibles. 2.2. Simplification des options. Sa conception est telle que le travail de l'opteur est simplifiu maximum; il peut ainsi se concentrer uniquement sur la qualitu produit final notamment gr aux diffnts dils repris ci-dessous: 1) Mise isposition ortde main de l'opteur de: - La feuille de PVC appelinterface de 200 MICRONS.- Un bac ortier en caoutchouc de 52 X 32 X 22 cm (30 L)- Un emplacement pour la taloche mllique. 2) 2 longerons rables en hauteur et ractables permettant un glissement en douceur de la tuile quel que soit le mod. 3) Le profil de la surface vibrante permet un blocage du cadre de la tuile rois endroits simultanpar une simple manuvre commandau pied ou a main (commande double). 4) Chaque point de blocage est rable individuellement, ce qui te l'emploi d'un joint d'nchntre le cadre et la surface vibrante de la table. 5) La permutation des cadres permettant de riser les diffntes tuiles se fait facilement par l'emploi de 3 charnis normalis. 6) Un syst automatique d'ouverture du cadre permet 'opteur de maintenir avec les 2 pouces les talons des 2 tuiles. 7) La commande du vibrateur se fait lement par une ple au pied montsur le m axe que le blocage du cadre. 8) Le niveau de la table est assurar 4 boulons et le contrest permanent gr niveaux fixes endroits visuels, 2.3. Equipement de base. Avec chaque table vibrante double, nous fournissons: - 1 cadre pour 2 tuiles ecouvrement de 490 X 235 M/M -12,5 tuiles/m2. - 1 cadre pour 1 tuile ecouvrement sous faiti (ms dimensions). - 1 cadre pour 1 tuile ecouvrement de rive (ms dimensions). - 1 cadre pour 2 tuiles faitis de 490 M/M (recouvrement de 70 0). - 1 bnni de 140 L, - 1 rouleau de PVC de 300 MM de largeur appelnterface de 200 microns uper localement en 1000 feuilles de 500 MM de long. - 1 pelle doseuse pour tuile 8 M/M (1 pelle = 1 tuile). - 1 bac ortier de 52 X 32 X 22 cm (30 litres). - 1 taloche mllique. - 1 balance 4 kgs (750 gr de colorant et 500 gr de sisal pour 46 tuiles de 8 m/m). - 1 seau de 10 L gradun caoutchouc. - 1 drille pour le torsadage du fil de fer. - Matel de contrde qualites tuiles (rstance aux chocs). - Matel de contrde qualites tuiles (rstance a flexion). - 1 antillon de fibre synthque. - 1 antillon de colorant rouge. 2.4. Supports doubles de mise en forme de sage. Ces supports doubles en acier galvanisnt 0,8 M d'isseur. Ceci permet d'assurer une soliditt une espnce de vie beaucoup plus longue des supports (qui constituent en fin de compte une des parties les plus onuses de toute unite production de tuiles fibro-mortier). De plus, le fait que la mati premi soit de l'acier galvanisermet de nettoyer les supports plus facilement que ceux con en plastique et d'miner notamment tout rdu de ciment qui viendrait s'y coller. Les supports doubles ont une longueur de 1080 M/M afin de dser facilement 2 tuiles sur un seul support. 1 support double complet pour tuile ecouvrement p 4,03 kg (non emball 1 support double complet pour tuile faiti p 4,8 kg (non emball Les 2 entretoises latles en acier galvanisournies avec le support sont boulonn et permettent d'obtenir un empilage parfait en laissant 40 M/M d'espace pour les 2 tuiles. Vu le co ces supports, nous offrons 7 propositions type AP dill dans le tableau suivant. Pour une utilisation optimale de la table vibrante et de la demande normale pour un toit eux versants, nous conseillons la formule suivante: - 375 supports pour le sage de 650 tuiles ecouvrement.- 25 supports pour le sage de 50 tuiles faitis. Cette quantite supports permet de drrer la journde travail avec une rrve de 50 supports non utilisla veille. 2.5.7 TYPES D'UNIT Type Qty recouvrement Qty Faitis Production / jour M2 / jour AP 100 95 5 190 tuiles 15m2 AP 150 145 5 290 tuiles 23m2 AP 200 190 10 380 tuiles 30m2 AP 250 235 15 470 tuiles 37m2 AP 300 280 20 560 tuiles 44m2 AP 350 325 25 650 tuiles 52m2 AP 400 375 25 700 tuiles 56m2 2.6. Mati premi rir mensuellement (25 jours 90 tuiles) pour la production de 17.250 tuiles de 8 mm. - 22,5 m3 de sable - 9,375 T de ciment - 187,5 kg de fibre de sisal ou 18,75 kg de fibre synthque - 281,250 kg de colorant - 9 kg de fil de fer galvanise 1 mm Il est oter que la fibre peut e remplacpar du graveleux latque de 6 mm maximum (quantit drminer en fonction du type de graveleux). - 4.874 l d'eau 2.7. 30 mnges rir par journ de 690 tuiles dans un mngeur de 140 litres (capacite 110 litres) 1 mnge = 23 tuiles de 8 mm d'isseur. - 30 litres de sable = 3 seaux de 10 litres - 10 litres de ciment = 1 seau de 10 litres - 250 gr de fibre de sisal ou 25 gr de fibermesh (pour le graveleux, cfr le parame rapport densitolume) - 375 gr de colorant - 6,5 l d'eau 2.8. Calcul du prix de revient de la tuile ou du m2 de toiture. A votre demande, nous pouvons vous riser gratuitement l'de de faisabilitancaire. Un questionnaire nous permettant d'blir le prix de revient du m2 de toiture en fonction des parames locaux vous sera envoy votre simple demande; la fiabilite notre de dndra essentiellement de l'exactitude de vos rnses. Les quantitdes matis premis reprises ci-dessus vous permettent d de comparer avec les mataux existants dans votre ron. De plus nous vous rappelons qu'il faut 12,5 tuiles au m2 ce qui reprnte un poids de 26,6 kg par m2 pour de la tuile de 8 mm d'isseur et donc une charpente plus lre. 2.9. Formation. Prir une formation (qu'elle soit d'APPRO-TECHNO ou de tout autre institut de formation reconnu pour la qualite son transfert de technologie) est trimportant et peut e consid comme un investissement au m titre que le matel. La fabrication optimale de tuiles fibro-mortier de qualitt la rsite de la dissnation de la technologie sont largement li ne formation thique et surtout pratique (technologie et gestion). C'est pour ces raisons qu'APPRO-TECHNO propose une formation soit sur le site soit bidjan (Cd'Ivoire). Pour plus de renseignements e sujet, veuillez nous contacter. 2.10 Dils du collissage. AP 100: 1.225 kg (poids brut total) 3,53 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 300 kg / PB 450 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,60 m., PN 680 kg / PB 750 kg AP 150: 1.625 kg (poids brut total) 3,82 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 360 kg / PB 475 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,80 m., PN 1.000 kg / PB 1.150 kg AP 200: 2.050 kg (poids brut total) 4,03 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 475 kg / PB 600 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 0,95 m., PN 1.300 kg / PB 1.450 kg AP 250: 2.430 kg (poids brut total) 4,28 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 450 kg / PB 600 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,12 m., PN 1.720 kg / PB 1.830 kg AP 300: 2.810 kg (poids brut total) 4,57 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 450 kg / PB 600 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,32 m., PN 2.100 kg/ PB 2.210 kg AP 350: 3.075 kg (poids brut total) 5,57 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 550 kg / PB 690 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 2,02 m., PN 2.200 kg / PB 2.385 kg AP 400: 3.345 kg (poids brut total) 4,83 m3: - 1 caisse maritime 1,77 X 1,35 X 1,12 m, PN 1.205 kg / PB 1.365 kg - 1 caisse maritime renforc(supports) 1,20 X 1,20 X 1,50 m., PN 1.780 kg / PB 1.980 kg DEALER:

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